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"r®'ge á oHC á "kwif á wdpD0&duf
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wdpD0&duf"kwif taMumif;


2; 2; 1/ / wdpD0&duf"kwif t"dyÜg,f

'kuk#fac:ESpfxyfouFef;BuD;wpfxnf? ukd,f½kH{uoDwpfxnf? cg;0wfoif;ykdif wpfxnf[laom okH;xnfaomouFef;wkdUukd wdpD0& = ouFef;okH;xnf[kac:\/ wd onf okH;ckocFsm[kt"dyÜg,f&í pD0&um;ouFef;[kt"dyÜg,f&ygonf/ ,if;okH;xnf aomouFef;wdkYukdomaqmifjcif;? 0wf½kHjcif;tavh½Sdaom&[ef;awmfukd awpD0&du = ouFef;okH;xnfudkomaqmifavh½Sdaom&[ef;[kac:\/ xdkouFef;okH;xnfukdom aqmifjcif; 0wf½kHjcif;tavh½Sdaom&[ef;awmf\ tusifhodu©mü aqmufwnfaMumif; jzpfaom taMumif;t*Fg[kqkdtyfaom orm'geapwemukd awpD0&du*F = wdpD0&duf "kwif[kac:ygonf/

2; 2; 2/ / wd0D0&duf"kwif aqmufwnfykH

wdpD0&duf"kwifukd ]]pwkw pD0&H y#du©dygrd? awpD0&du*ø orm"d,mrd}}[k ygVd bmomoufoufjzifhvnf;aumif;? ]]0wfavmuf½kHavmufav;xnfajrmufaom ouFef; udk y,fyg\/ okH;xnfaomouFef;udkom aqmifjcif;tavh½Sdaom&[ef;\ taMumif; t*Fg apwemukdaqmufwnfyg\}}[kjrefrmbmomoufoufjzifhvnf;aumif; rdrdESpf ouf&m bmompum;jzifh aqmufwnfusihfokH;Edkifygonf/

2; 2; 3/ / wdpD0&duf"kwif aqmif&[ef;\ oDjcm;tcGifhta&;

wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmifaom&[ef;onf ouFef;vsmykqkd;ukd&vmygu rusef;rm aomaMumifh ouFef;csKyf&ef rpGrf;Edkifao;orQumvywfvkH;jzpfap? ouFef;csKyf&ef pD&ifwwfaomolukd r&ao;orQumvywfvkH;jzpfap? tyfponfwkdUwGif wpfpkHwpfck aom taqmuftODypönf;ud&d,mrjynfhpkHao;orQumvywfvkH;jzpfap xdkouFef;vsm ykqkd;pukd owfrSwf&ufausmfonftxd qufvufí okdrSD;odrf;qnf;xm;Edkif\/ xdkokdU odrf;qnf;xm;jcif;aMumifh edó*¾dygpdwftmywfroifhay/ þum;wdpD0&dwf"kwifaqmif &[ef;\ oDjcm;tcGifhta&;wpf&yfyifjzpfygonf/

wdpD0&duf"kwifukd raqmufwnfaom omref&[ef;awmfrsm;onf ouFef;vsm ykqkd; &vmygu (10)&ufom okdrSDodrf;qnf;xm;ydkifhcGifh½Sd\/ (10)&uftwGif; ouFef; csKyfjcif;? t"d|mefwifjcif;paom vkyfief;rsm;NyD;pD;atmifvkyf&\/ (10)&ufausmfvGef oGm;ygu edó*¾dygpdwftmywfoifhygonf/ ouFef;ukdpGefUjcif;[laom 0denf;uHukd jyK& ygonf/ qufvufí okdrSD;odrf;qnf;xm;cGifhr½Sdawmhacs/

okdUaomfvnf; wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf ouFef;vsmykqkd;ukd aq;qkd;NyD; vQifum; qufvufíodrf;qnf;xm;ykdifcGifhr½Sdawmhacs/ qufvufíodrf;qnf;xm;yg u "kw*Fapm&= "kwifolcdk;rnfavawmh\/

2; 2; 4/ / wdpD0&duf"kwif aqmifyk*¾dKvfokH;rsdK;

wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf

1/ Ouú|awpD0&du = tjrwfpm;wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf 2/ rZÑdrawpD0&du = tvwfpm;wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf 3/ rk'kawpD0&du = tnHhpm; wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf[lí okH;rsdK;jym; \/

xdkokH;rsdK;wdkUwGif

1/ tjrwfpm;wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf ouFef;aq;qkd;aomtcg oif; ydkifukd a½S;OD;pGmaq;qkd;NyD;aemuf xdkoif;ydkifukd0wfum wzefudk,f½kH{uoDukdaq;qkd; &rnf/ okdYr[kwf ukd,f½kH{uoDukd a½S;OD;pGmaq;qkd;NyD; xdk{uoDukd0wfum oif;ykdif; ukdaq;qkd;&rnf/ xdkaemufrS oif;ykdifukd0wfí{uoDukd&ef;NyD;'kuk#fac:ESpfxyfouFef; BuD;ukd aq;qkd;&rnf/ xdkESpfxyfouFef;BuD;ukdrl r0wfaumif;ay? þum; ½GmeD;ausmif; üaeaom tjrwfpm;wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmif &[ef;\ ouFef;ü jyKusifh&rnfh tpDtpOf rsm;yifjzpfygonf/

awmausmif;ae wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmif &[ef;jzpfygu rdrdteD;tyg;0,f rnfol wpfOD;wpfa,mufrQr½SdonfhtwGufoif;ydkif? {uoDESpfxnfvkH;ukd wpfNydKifeufavsmfzGyf í qkd;Ekdif\/ okdYaomfwpfpkHwpfa,mufukdjrifvQifouFef;ukdqGJítvG,fwulcE¨mudk,f ukd zkH;tkyfEdkif&ef xdkavsmfzGyfqkd;NyD;aom ouFef;wkdUukd teD;tem;üxm;&rnf/ þum; tjrwfpm;wdpD0&dwf"kwifaqmif&[ef;\ouFef;ü jyKusifh&rnfhtpDtpOfrsm;yifjzpfonf/

2/ tvwfpm;wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf ouFef;qkd;½kHü rdrdouFef;ukd aq;qkd;aomtcdkuftwefYwGif 0wf&efxm;aomoDoefYouFef;½Sd\/ xdkoD;oefUouFef;ukd 0wf½kHí aq;qkd;jcif;trIukdjyKEkdif\/

3/ tnHhpm;wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonfoabmwl&[ef;wdkU\ ouFef;wkdY ukd0wf½kHíaomfvnf;aumif;? rdrdaexdkif&m ausmif;wkdufü tdyf&mvTrf;tjzpfjzifh t"d|mef wifxm;aom rdrdolwpfyg;Opömjzpfaom tdyf&mtcif;ukdvnf;aumif;? teHwpfxGm? tvsm;okH;awmif½SdaomtHoukd#fouFef;ukdvnf;aumif;0wf½kHíouFef;aq;qkd;jcif; trIukd jyKvkyfEdkif\/ okdYaomftdyf&mtcif;rsm;ukd oGm;av&m&mt&yfokdYaqmif,loGm; jcif;? oabmwl&[ef;wkdU\ ouFef;rsm;ukdouFef; aq;qkd;&mumv rSwpfyg;tjcm;aomumvwkdYü 0wf½kHjcif;wkdYukdrjyKaumif;ay/ ouFef;aq;qkd;pOfcPüom okH;aqmif&rnfjzpfygonf/

þütHoukd#fouFef;[lonfrSm ,ckacwfü0wf½kHaeMuaom tusÐ[email protected] tHoukd#frsdK;r[kwf yckH;wif acR;cHp&mouFef;tykdif; tpuav;rQomjzpfygonf/ teH wpfxGm? tvsm;okH;awmifyrmP½Sdygonf/ xdkyrmPxuf t,kwftvGefjzpfrl rtyf ay/ "kwifysufEdkifygonf/ þüteHwpfxGm[laompum;onf t"d|mefrwifavmuf aomteHyrmPukdjyaompum;jzpf\/ tvsm;okH;awmif[laom pum;onfukd,fü toD; tjcm;&pfywfEdkifavmufaomyrmPukdjyaompum;jzpf\/ xkdUaMumifh xkdokH;awmifxuf tenf;i,fykdvGefaomfvnf;t"d|mefrwifavmufaomaMumifhtyf\/0wfaumif;\/yuwd tm;jzifhteHwpfxGmcGJ? tvsm;av;axmif ½Sdaomt"d|mefwifavmufaom t0wfouFef; onfomrtyfjcif;jzpfygonf/ pifppftm;jzifhþtHoukd#fouFef;onf y&du©m&apmV t"d|mefjzpf\/ okdYjzpfí tdyf&mvTrf; tdyf&mcif;ESifhtHo ukd#f[laomESpfxnfwkdYonf ouFef;okH;xnfrS tykdtvGefouFef;t&mü wnfaomf vnf; "kwifysufjcif;ukd rjyKEdkifukef [kt|uxmü qkdaMumif; 0dok'¨dr*fr[m#Dumü zGifhqkdxm;\/ þum; tnHhpm;wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmif&[ef;ESifhpyfí odrSwfzG,f&mrsm; jzpfygonf/

2; 2; 5/ / 0denf;wdpD0&dufESifh "kwifwdpD0&dwfESpfrsdK;xl;jcm;csuf

wdpD0&dufonf -

(u) 0denf;wdpD0&duf

( c) "kwifwdpD0&dduf[lí ESpfrsdK;½Sd\/ xdkwGif 0denf;wdpD0&duf onf ESpfxyfouFef;BuD;? oif;ydkif? {uoD[laom ouFef;okH;xnfwkdYukd t"d|mefwifí xdkouFef;okH;xnfwdkYrSykdaeaomouFef;wkdYukd 0duyÜemjyKxm;vQif rnfrQyifrsm;pGmxm; aomfvnf; tjypfr½Sday/ tykdouFef;rsm; pkaqmif;xm;cGifh½Sdygonf/

"kwifwdpD0&dufürl 'g,umwkdYuouFef;vSLaomtcg rlv0wfxm;aomouFef; rsm;aqG;ajrUysufpD;í ta&miftqif;r½SdrSom ouFef;tvSLcH,lcGifh½Sdygonf/ tvSLcH ,lNyD;ívnf; ouFef;a[mif;ukdy,fum ouFef;topfukd t"d|mefwifí "kwifaqmuf wnfNyD; 0wf½kHokH;aqmif&ygonf/ 0denf;wdpD0&dufuJhokdU 0duyÜemjyKí ouFef;rsm;pGm pkaqmif;odrf;qnf;xm;ykdifcGifhr½Sdacs/ þum;0denf;wdpD0&dufESifh"kwifwdpD0&dufESpfrsdK; xl;jcm;csufyifjzpfygonf/

okdYaomf wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf rdrdüwdpD0&dufjynfhpkHNyD;jzpfí 'g, umwkdUuvmí ouFef;rsm;vSLcJhaomf rdrdtwGufr&nfrSef;bJ tjcm;aom&[ef;wdkU twGuf&nfrSef;í 'g,umwkdUukokdvfyGg;ap&efcsD;ajr§mufaomtm;jzifh tvSLcH,lvQif tvSLcHaumif;ygonf/

2;2; 6/ / wdpD0&duf"kwif aqmif&[ef;rsm; vkdufemusifhaqmifzG,f&mrsm;

wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf a&csdK;aomtcg tm*EÅKponf½SdvQif rk'k yk*¾dKvfuJhokYd a&csdK;&m\/ tm*EÅKponfr½SdvQif ouFef;aq;qkd;aom tcguJhokdY ouFef; rsm;ukdcRwfía&csdK;Edkif\/ awmausmif;ae&[ef;wpfyg;wnf;jzpfvQif rnfolwpfOD; wpfa,mufrQrjrifcJhaomf xkdenf;wlpGma&csdK;Edkif\/ jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifonf &[ef; awmfwkdYtm; rkd;a&cHouFef;ac: a&csdK;oif;ykdifukd cGifhrjyKpOfu &[ef;awmfwkdUonf ouFef;rsm;ukdcRwfí ukd,fvkH;wnf;a&csdK;Mu&avonf/ rkd;a&cHouFef;ukd okH;pGJcGifhjyK NyD;aemufumvrSpí a&csdK; oif;ydkif0wfum a&csdK;Muavonf/ wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmif &[ef;onf ouFef;okH;xnfxuftykdouFef;rsm;aqmifxm;cGifhr½SdaomaMumifh ukd,fvkH; wnf;a&csdK;Edkif\/ xkdokdYcsdK;jcif;aMumifhrnfonfhtjypfrSrjzpfay/ tm*EÅKponf½SdvQif ajcokwfaomouFef;rsm;ywfívnf;aumif;? oif;ykdifjzifhvnf;aumif;? {uoDjzifh vnf;aumif;a&csdK;Edkif\/ a&csdK;cef;½SdvQifum; wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmif&[ef;rsm;twGuf txl;yif oifhavsmfygonf/ xkdUaMumifh wdpD0&duf"kwifaqmufwnfaom &[ef;wkdUonf rdrdcE¨mukd,fukd vkHjcKHatmifumuG,fEdkifavmufaom a&csdK;cef;i,fukd jyKvkyfxm;oifh\/ okdUrSom pdwfat;csrf;ompGm "kwiftusifhukd jznfhusifhEdkifrnfjzpf ygonf/

rdk;wGif;umvqGrf;cHoGm;aomtcg rkd;a&pkd½GJvQif ausmif;üusefaom ouFef;wpf xnfwnf;jzifhae&\/ Ouú|f"kwifaqmif&[ef;rsm;jzpfaomf {nfhonfvmvQiftaecuf aomfvnf; okcvdkvQif'ku©ESifh&if;ESD;&rnf[kjrwfpGmbk&m;½SifrdefUrSmawmfrlaomaMumifh taecufaom'ku©ukd vQpfvQL½Ií aexdkifEdkif&rnfjzpfonf/ oif;ykdifukdrkd;a&pkd½GJvQif {uoDukd oif;ydkifygonfhtwdkif;0wf½kH&\/ {uoDukd oif;ydkifuJhokdY0wf½kHykHrSm {uoD ukdteHvkdufukdifíoif;ykdiftjzpf0wfum atmufpukd tay:okdYqGJ,lum txufykckH;xuf odkYwifNyD;vQif ukd,fukdywfí&ef;xm;&rnf/ xkdodkY0wfykHudk ]]owm {aueaEÅe O'u om#duH ed0gaowGm {aueaEÅe o&D&H yg½kydwGm aZw0eaygu©&PD,H ESm,dómrD}} wd aomygae t|mod}}[laomrkd;a&cHouFef;0wf½kHykHukdjyaom Zmwut|uxm pum; jzihfodtyf\/ tjcm;0wfykHwpfenf;rSm {uoDukd oif;ydkif½SdonfhtoGifuJhokdY&ef;í aemufpukd a½SUokdUqGJípkxm;NyD; cg;yef;BudK; ywfxm;&rnfjzpfonf/ þum;{uoD wpfxnfwnf;jzifh ESpfxyf0wfykHESifhwlatmif 0wfykHjzpfygonf/

aqmif;wGif;ESifhrkd;wGif;tcgrsm;ü wdpD0&dwf"kwifaqmif&[ef;wkdUonf 'ku© rsm;pGm awGUBuHK&ojzifh o'¨gw&m;ravsmhyg;atmif txl;owdxm;í aqmufwnf oifh\/ xkdtcgrsdK;ü rdrdaexkdif&mausmif;½Sdtcif;rsm; oHCduapmif? vdkufum? jcif axmifponfwkdYukd okH;pGJEdkif\/ xdkokdUokH;pGJjcif;aMumifh"kwifrysufacs/ ukd,fykdifapmif? jcifaxmif? vkdufumrsm; jzpfrSom"kwifysufEdkifygonf/

oydwfokwfyk0g? rsufESmokwfyk0g? vufukdifyk0grsm;um; 0denf;awmft& aqmif xm;cGifh&aom ypönf;rsm;jzpfaomaMumifh "kwifrysufEkdifay/ xkdaMumifh wdpD0&dwf"kwif aqmif&[ef;wkdYonf 0denf;awmftwkdif; vdkufemusifhokH;aqmufwnf&rnfjzpfygonf/

2; 2; 7/ / wdpD0&dwfouFef;udk pepfwusjzwffcsKyf&efcGifhjyKawmfrljcif;/

jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifbk&m;jzpfawmfrlonfrlrS *[ywdpD0&ukd cGifhjyKawmfrlcsdeftxd 0gawmfESpfq,ftwGif;ü &[ef;awmfwkdU0wf½kHokH;pGJaeMuonfh oif;ykdif? {uoDESifhESpf xyfouFef;BuD;wkdYrSm ,ckacwf&[ef;wkdU okH;pGJaeMuonfhouFef;rsm;uJhokdY pepfwuscsKyfxm;jcif;rsdK;r½Sdao;ay/ vrf;qkHvrf;rponfrS oifhovdk pyf[yfcsKyfvkyfxm;jcif; rQomjzpfonf/ *[ywdpD0&ukd cGifhjyKawmfrlNyD;aemufrSom bk&m;½SifcGifhjyKawmfrlcsuf t& pepfwus csKyfvkyfíokH;pGJvmMuavonf/

wpfaeUoü jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifonf &mZN*dK[fjynfrS 'u©dPm*D&dZeyk'fokdY a'o pm&DMuGawmfrlpOf vrf;c&D;tMum;ü uefoif;uefabmifrsm;jzihf pepfwuszGJUxm;aom r*"v,fajrukd jrifawmfrlav\/ r*"v,fykdif½SifwkdUonf rdrdwdkU\ v,fajruefoif; aygifrsm;ukd pepfwusjyKvkyfxm; wwfMu\/ pepfusykHrSSm v,fuGif;us,fBuD;twGif;ü tvsm;vkduf uefoif;aygifzGJUoihfonfhae&mwGif tvsm;vdkufzGJUxm;\/ 4if;tvsm; vkdufuefoif;½Snfrsm;tMum;wGifrS uefoif;wkdav;rsm;ukd teHvkduf tuefYtuefYzGJUí jyKvkyfxm;\/ vkd&m v,fuGif;odkY a&rsm;pepfwus pD;qif;ekdif&ef a&ajrmif;i,frsm;udk vnf;oG,fay;xm;\/ twkdt½SnftnDtrQ Z,m;uGufcsía&;qGJxm;aom yef;csD;um; csyfBuD;wpfcsyf[k wifpm;vQifyif &EkdifzG,f½Sd\/ r*"v,fonf þrQavmufpepfus \/ jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifonf ]]&[ef;wkdY0wf½kHaomouFef;rsm;udk pepfwus½SdvSaom r*" v,fuGufrsm;uJhodkY tuGufazmfícsKyfap&vQifaumif;avpG}} [k tBuHjzpfay:vm\/ xkdYaMumifh jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifonf t½SiftmeE´mtm; r*"v,fuGufrsm;udk ñTefjyawmfrl í xkdr*"v,fuGufESifhwlpGm &[ef;wkdYtwGuf ouFef;csKyf&efñTefMum;awmfrlavonf/

t½SiftmeE´rax&fonf &mZN*dK[fjynfodkYjyefa&mufaomtcg ouFef;vsmydwfp rsm;udkpepfwusjzwfawmufNyD;vQif tem;ywfç tdrf0ef;BuD;ç tdrf0ef;i,fç wvkyfajrmif; ½Snfç wvkyfajrmif;wkdponfwkdYudk olae&mESifhol tuGufazmf pyf[yfcsKyfvkyfNyD;aemuf jrwfpGmbk&m;½Siftm;jy\/ jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifonf vGefpGmtm;&auseyfawmfrlojzifh &[ef;wkdYtm; ac:awmfrlí-

]]&[ef;wkdY.... tmeE´monfynm½SdaypG? &[ef;wkdY tmeE´monf BuD;aomynm½Sd aypG? tmeE´monf igbk&m;tusOf;tm;jzifh a[mtyfaomygVdawmf\teufudk tus,f tm;jzifhodbd\/ tvsm;teH tem;ywf wvkyfajrmif;½Snfrnfonfudkvnf;jyKbd\/ wvkyfajrmif;i,fudkvnf;jyKbd\/ tdrf0eff;BuD;ukdrlvnf;jyKbd\/ tdrfcGJudkvnf;jyKbd \/ tv,facgif (acgifcef;) udkvnf;jyKbd\/ acgif&Hudkvnf;jyKbd\/ vnfxd&mcH aomtem;ywfudkvnf;jyKbd\/ jrif;acgif;xd&mcHaom tem;ywfudkvnf;jyKbd\/ vufvdyfukdvnf;jyKbd\/ jzwfvnf;jzwfbd\/ "m;jzifhjzwfjcif;jzifhMurf;wrf;í &[ef; wkdYtm;avQmufywf\/ &efolwkdYonfvnf;tvkdr½Sdtyf/ &[ef;wkdY jzwfaom 'kuk#f? jzwfaomudk,f0wf? jzwfaomoif;ydkifwkdYudkigbk&m;cGifhjyK\}} [krdefYawmfrlum t½SiftmeE´mrax&ftm;csD;usL;awmfrlí &[ef;awmfwkdYtm;pepfwusjzwfcsKyftyfaom ouFef;udk cGifhjyKawmfrlygonf/

jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifonf txufygtwkdif; ouFef;jzwfcsKyf&ef cGifhjyKawmfrl&mwGif ouFef;rsm;jzwfí csKyf&jcif;\tusdK;ESpf&yfudkygxnfhoGif;í rdefYawmfrlcJhaMumif; awGU½Sd Ekdif\/ 4if;tusdK;ESpf&yfrSm-

1/ "m;jzifhjzwfjcif;jzifhMurf;wrf;í&[ef;wkdYtm;avQmufywfjcif;[laom orP om½kyÜtusdK;/

2/ olckd;"m;jy paom&efolwkdYtvkdr½Sdjcif;[laom ypöwdutebdpädw tusdK;wkdY jzpfonf/

rSef\? tb,frQacsmarGUaom txnfyifjzpfapumrl "m;jzifhtydkif;rsm; jyKvkyf jzwfawmufícsKyfpyfcJhvQif xkdcsKyf½kd;ae&mwkdYwGif tzktxpfrsm;jzpfay:vmojzifh csKyf ½kd;aMumif; ae&monf txdtawGUMurf;wrf;\/ txdtawGUMurf;ygu txdtawGUü om,mwwfaom wPSmavmbonfvnf;rjzpfay:Ekdifay/ xkdYaMumifh"m;jzifh tydkif;ydkif; jzwfícsKyf xm;ojzifh tawGYtxdMurf;aom xkdouFef;onf&[ef;awmfwkdYESifh txl;yif oifhawmfavQmufywf\/ xkdenf;wlpGmyiftydkif;ydkif;jzwfícsKyfxm;aom xkdouFef; onf rlvtxnfb0u rnfrQyifwefzkd;½SdapumrlouFef;tjzpfa&muf½SdcsdefwGif wef;zkd; avQmhenf;oGm;rnfrSmaocsm\/ tb,fhaMumifhqkdaomf tykdif;tydkif;jywfaeaomaMumifh jzpf\/ wefzkd;enf;aom xkdouFef;udk olckd;"m;jywkdYonf rufarmrIr½Sdojzifh &efrljcif; udkvnf;rjyKMuay/ xkdYaMumifh tydkif;tydkif;jzwfícsKyfjcif;onf olckd;"m;jypaom &efol wkdY tvkdr½Sdjcif;[laom tusdK;udk&½SdEkdifjcif;jzpf\/

xkdYjyif yg&mZduPft|uxmüvnf; ouFef;ü ysufjcif;okH;rsdK;udk zGifhqkdxm; ao;\/ 4if;wkdYrSm -

1/ "m;jzifhtydkif;tydkif;jzwfxm;ojzifh wefzkd;ysufjcif; (t*¢ab')/

2/ tydkdif;tydkif;jzwfxm;aomydwfpwkdYudk csnfwkdYjzifhjyefvnfpyfcsKyfxm;ojzifh tawGYysufjcif; (zóab')/

3/ csKyfonfhtcg tyfçtyfcsnfESifh vufü½SdaomtnpftaMu;qkd;aq;ponfwkdY aMumifhtqif;ysufjcif; (0PÖab') wkdYjzpfonf/ ouFef;vsmydwfprS ouFef;tjzpfa&muf½Sdvmaomtcg azmfjyygysufjcif;okH;rsdK;wkdYjzpfay:vm\/ xkdtcg ouFef;udk 0wf½kHaom&[ef;wkdYonf ouFef;üwyfrufrIwPSmavmbrjzpfEkdifjzif; olckd;"m;jywkYduvnf; tvkdr½dSEkdifjcif;[laom tusdK;ESpfrsdK;udk&½SdaomaMumifh t|uxm zGifhqkkdaom ysufjcif;okH;rsdK;onf ygVdawmfvm tusdK;ESpfrsdK;ESifh t"dyÜg,fwlonf[kqkd& ayrnf/

2; 2; 8/ / 'kuk#fouFef;ü tcef;zGJYykHESifh tcef; ta&twGuf

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4if;'kuk#f {uoD ESpfrsdK;\ tcef;zGUJpyfykHjcm;em;csufukd edó,usrf;rsm;wGif ½SmazGMunfh&m qifwJq&mawmfBuD;a&;om;tyfaom 0denf;r[m0gygVdawmfedó, uxdeu©E¨uÜ ]]twda&uyOöaue0gt& 'kuk#fukd&nfownf;}}[laomrSwfcsufukd awGU&\/ q&mawmfBuD;\qkdvdkcsufrSm {uoDjzpfvQif ig;cef;zGUJpyfcsKyf&rnf/ 'kuk#f jzpfvQif ckepfcef;? ukd;cef;? wpfq,fhwpfcef;ponfzGUJpyfjzwfcsKyf&rnf[k qkdvdk[ef½Sd \/ rsufarSmufacwfwkdifatmif q&mpOfqufwkdYonf {uoDü ig;cef;? 'kuk#fü tenf; qkH; ckepfcef;csKyfvkyfokH;pGJMujcif;rSmvnf; qifwJq&mawmfBuD;enf;wl ]]yOöaue0g twda&u yOöaue 0g}}[laomygVdawmf0,f ]]yOöaue0g}}t& {uoDukdvnf;aumif;? ]]twda&u yOöaue 0g}}t& 'kuk#fkukdvnf;aumif; cGJjcm;,lMuaomaMumifhjzpfEkdifonf/

ckepfcef;ouFef;ü tcef;zGJUtrnfay;ykHESifhpyfí0de,0dedpä,#Dkumusrf;wGif ]]owå c@ó pD0&ó {uH rZÑ[email protected] 0d0¥emrar0 a[mwd}} ponfjzifh ckepfcef; ouFef; zGJYpyfonfhtcg ig;cef;ouFef;zGJUpyfykHü yg0ifaom 0d0¥trnf&aom tv,facgiftcef; \ ab;½Sd tEk0d0¥[laomtcef;ukd wpfbufESpfcef;pDwkd;csJUNyD;vQif 0d0¥tcef;ESifhuyf vsuf½Sdaom twGif;buftcef;ukd ]]r[mtEk0d0¥}}[kvnf;aumif;? tjyifbuftcef;ukd ]]plVtEk0d0¥}}[kvnf;aumif;trnfay;&rnf[kazmfjyxm;\/ xkd#Dumü 'kuk#f?{uoD [kcGJjcm;csufrygaomfvnf; qifwJq&mawmfpaomq&mpOfqufwdkU\t,ltqt& 'kuk#fukdyif &nfñTef;onf[krSwf,l&rnf/

'kuk#fouFef;ü½Sdaom tcef;ta&twGufESifhywfoufí edó,? a,mZemp onfwdkUt,ltquGJjym;MuonfukdawGU&\/ 0denf;r[m0gedó,usrf;jyKa0,HbkHom q&mawmf\ t,ltqrSm ouFef;zGUJpyfykHta&twGufukd jyqdkaom t|uxmpum; &yfü ]]yOöuH 0g owåuH0g {um'óuH0g}}[k wpfw,fhwpfcef;txdomygaomaMumifh trsm;qkH; wpfq,fhwpfcef;txdom zGUJpyfEdkifaMumif;azmfjyxm;\/

uxde0daom"eDusrf;jyK Aef;armfq&mawmfuvnf; wpfq,fhwpfcef;xufvGef vQif tcef;tpyfrSef; ajrmif;wvkyfrSef; rodEkdifaomaMumifh t|uxmvmonfhtwdkif; wpfq,fh wpfcef;txdomzGUJpyfoifhonf[kqkH;jzwfxm;\/

ygpdwsm'da,mZemürl t|uxmvm yOöuH0g owåuH0gponfwkdUüygaom 0g o'´gjzifh wpfq,fhokH;cef;ponfukdaygif;,laomaMumifh wpfq,fhokH;cef; ponf zGUJpyf EdkifaMumif;qkH;jzwfxm;\/ 0ZD&Ak'¨d#Dumüvnf; xkdenf;twl tcef;rsm;pGmzGJUEkdif aMumif;azmfjyxm;\/ ,if;t,ltqESpfrsdK;wGif rsufarSmufacwf 'kkuk#fouFef;rsm;ü wpfq,fhig;cef; ponfjzifhzGJUpyfí 0wf½kHokH;pGJMuonfukdawGU&ojzifh aemuf0g'ukd ykdrdk ESpfoufonf[k ,lq&rnfjzpfygonf/

2; 2; 9/ / wdpD0&dwfouFef;\ tvsm;teHyrmP

ygVdawmf? t|uxm? #DumponfwkdUüt&m0wKwkdY\tvsm;teHyrmP twkdif; twmukd azmfjy&mwGif vufopf txGm tawmif[laom tokH;tEIef;rsm;jzifhazmfjyxm; onfukd awGU&\/ ,ckacwf okH;pGJaeMuaom vufr ay ukduf[laomtokH;tEIef;rsm; udk rawGU&ay/ oif;ykdif {uoD 'kuk#f rdkk;a&cHouFef;ponfwkdU\ yrmPtwdkif;twm ukdjy&müvnf; vufopf txGm tawmifwkdUjzifhomwkdif;wmjycJhMu\/ xkdwGif oif;ykdif {uoD 'kuk#f[laom wdpD0&dwf\tvsm;teHyrmPukd yg&mZduPft|uxm? ucFg t|uxmwkdUü

]]wdpD0&dwf\ tBuD;qkH;yrmPonf jrwfpGmbk&m;\ouFef;awmfatmuf i,f& rnf/ ti,fqkH;yrmPum; {uoDESifh'kuk#fü tvsm;ig;awmif awmifqkyf? teH okH; awmif awmifqkyf½Sd&rnf/ oif;ykdifütvsm;ig;awmifawmifqkyf? teH ESpfawmif ½Sd&rnf}}[kyg½Sd\/

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xkddq&mawmfwkdU\tvdktm;jzifh {uoDESifh'kuk#fü tenf;qkH;tvsm;av;awmif ESifhawmifqkyf? teH ESpfawmifESifhawmifqkyf½Sd&rnf/ oif;ykdifwGiftenf;qkH; av;awmif ESifhawmifqkyf? teH ESpfawmif½Sd&rnfjzpf\/

0drwd#Dum aupd0g'ESifh ucFg#Dumopf ck'´odu©m#DumopfwkdUurl rk|dyOöut& tqkyfawmifcsnf;ig;ck,lonf/ tawmiftjynfhryg&/ rk|dwdut&vnf; xdkenf;wl tqkyfawmifcsnf; okH;ck,lonf/ ,if;wkdYtvdktm;jzifh {uoDESifh'kuk#fü tenf;qkH; tvsm; vufqkyfjzifhig;awmif? teH vufqkyfjzifhokH;awmif½Sd&rnf/ oif;ykdifwGiftenf; qkH; tvsm;vufqkyfjzihf ig;awmif? teH vufqkyfjzifhESpfawmif½Sd&rnfjzpf\/

xdktvsm;çteHyrmPwkdUukd,ckacwfokH;çvufrçaywkdUjzifhwkdif;wmvQif a½S;#Dum q&mwkdUtvdktm;jzifh{uoDESifh'kuk#fü tvsm; ckepfayESifh av;vufr = (7'+4")? teH av;ayESifhav;vufr=(4'+4'')½Sdí oif;ykdifü tvsm; ckepfayESifhav;vufr = (7'+4'') teH okH;ay= (3') rQ½Sdavonf/ aemuf#Dumq&mwkdUtvdktm;jzifh {uoDESifh 'kuk#fü tvsm; ajcmufayig;vufr=(6'+5'') teHokH;ayukd;vufr=(3'+9'')½Sdí oif; ykdifü tvsm;ajcmufay ukd;vufr = (6'+9'')? teH okH;ay = (3')½Sdonf/

,ckacwf½Sd wdpD0&dwfouFef;rsm;ukdwdkif;wmMunfhonfhtcg ysrf;rQtm;jzifh {uoDESifh'kuk#fí tvsm;½Spfay? teH ajcmufay½SpfvufrcefU½SdNyD; oif;ykdifü {uoD 'kuk#fwkdUESifhwlpGm tvsm;½Spfay½Sdí teHrSmokH;ay ckESpfr(3'+7'')½SdonfukdawGU&\/ qkdcJhNyD;aom t|uxm #Dumvm ti,fqkH;ouFef;\ tvsm; teHyrmPxuf ajcmuf vufrcefY? teH wpfaycGJ ESpfaycefYBuD;onfukdawGY&\/ okdUaomftBuD;qkH;ouFef; yrm Pudk jrwfpGmbk&m;\ ouFef;awmfyrmPatmuf tenf;i,favsmhí csKyfEkdifaMumif; ygpdwfygVdawmf? eE´odu©myk'f?yg&mZduPft|uxm? ucFgt|uxmwkdUü a[mMum; zGifhqkdxm;aomaMumifh xkdrQavmufBuD;jcif;jzihf tjypfrjzpfEkdifyg/

wdpD0&dwfouFef;\ ti,fqkH;yrmPukd avhvmouJhokdU tBuD;qkH;yrmPukd vnf; avhvmrnfqdkygu jrwfpGmbk&m;\ ouFef;awmfyrmPukdvnf; a½S;OD;pGm odxm;&efvdk\/ okdUrSom jrwfpGmbk&m;\ ouFef;awmfyrmP atmuf i,f&rnfjzpf aom wdpD0&dwf\yrmPukd EIdif;,SOfavhvmEkdifrnfjzpfygonf/

jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sif\ ouFef;awmfyrmPukd ygpdwfygVdawmf? eE´odu©myk'fü ]]tvsm;tm;jzifh jrwfpGmbkk&m;½SiftxGmawmfjzifh ukd;xGm? teHtm;jzifh ajcmufxGmwkdY onfbk&m;½Sif\ ouFef;awmfyrmPwnf;}}[krdefYawmfrl\/

þü ]]jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sif\ txGmawmfjzifh}}[laompum;t& jrwfpGmbkk&m;ESifh tjcm;yk*¾dKvfwdkY\ twdkif;twmuGmjcm;csufukd od&efvdktyfvmjyef\/ jrwfpGmbk&m; ESifhrZÑdryk&doac: vuform;wkd\ twdkif;txGmyrmPuGmjcm;csufukd yg&mZduPf t|uxm? ucFgt|uxmwkdUü ]]jrwfpGmbk&m;\wpfxGmonf ,cktcg rZÑdryk&do\ okH;xGm? vuform;awmifjzihf tcGJESifhwuG ESpfawmif(0g)wpfawmifxGmjzpf\}} [lí vnf;aumif;/ 0de,mvuFm&#Dumü ]]jrwfpGmbk&m;\ vufopfawmfwpfck(0g) wpfvufopfonf rZÑdryk&doac:vuform;wkdU\ vufopfjzifh okH;vufopf½Sd\/ vlwkdU\yuwdvufopftm;jzifhav;opfcGJ½Sd\}}[lívnf;aumif; toD;oD;zGifhqkdxm; Mu\/

jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sif\ wpfvufopfonf rZÑdryk&doac: vuform;wkdU\ vufopftm;jzifhokH;vufopf? yuwdvlwkdY\ vufopftm;jzifh av;opfcGJESifhnDrQ\/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh jrwfpGmbk&m;\ vufopftxGmyrmPonf rZÑdryk&do\vufopf txGmyrmPxuf okH;q? yuwdyk&do\ vufopftxGmyrmPxuf av;qcGJrQ ykdí BuD;onf[kqkdvdkygonf/ 4if;twkdif; jrwfpGmbk&m;\ ouFef;awmfyrmPukd wkdif;wm vQif jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sif\ ouFef;awmfyrmPonf/

jrwfpGmbk&m;\ txGmawmfjzifh

= tvsm; ukd;xGm = av;awmifxGm = teH ajcmufxGm = okH;awmif

rZÑdryk&dotxGmtm;jzifh

= tvsm; ESpfq,fhckepfxGm = wpfq,fhokH;awmifxGm = teH wpfq,fh½SpfxGm = ukd;awmif

yuwdyk&dotm;jzifh

= tvsm; av;q,fxGm = tawmifESpfq,f = teH ESpfq,fhckepfxGm =wpfq,fhokH;awmif

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2; 2; 10/ / &[ef;wdkUtm; ouFef;okH;xnf uefYowfcGifhjyKawmfrljcif;

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jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifonf a0omvDjynf a*gwrurnfaomapwDokdUa&mufawmfrl aomtcg vrf;c&D;ü jzpfay:cJhaom tMuHawmftwkdif; &[ef;awmfwkdYtm; ouFef; ta& twGuf uefYowfay;&efqkH;jzwfawmfrlNyD;vsif &[ef;wpfyg;ü trsm;qkH;vkdtyf rnfhouFef;ta&twGufukd ukd,fawmfwkdifa½S;OD;pGm prf;oyfawmfrlygonf/ &[ef; awmfwkdUtwGuf ouFef;trsm;qkH; vkdtyfonfh&moDum; aqmif;&moDyifjzpfonf/ xkd&moDü tat;'PfukdumuG,f&ef tykdouFef;vkdtyfrnfomwnf;/

jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifonf aqmif;&moD\ tat;qkH;nOfhrsm;[kqkd&rnfh wykdUwGJv ESifh waygif;vtMum; ½Spf&ufxJrS ESif;trsm;qkH;usonfh nOfhwpfnOfhwGif opfyifBuD; i,fr½Sdaom uGif;jyifus,fwpfckokdUMuGawmfrlí tykdouFef;ESpfxnftygt0if {uoD okH;xnfukd ab;wGifcsxm;vsuf oif;ykdifwpfxnfwnf;jzifhaeawmfrlum tat;'Pf ESifhouFef;vdk tyfcsufukdprf;oyfawmfrlygonf/ nOfhOD;,mrfvGefí oef;acgif,mrfokdU a&mufrlaomtcg jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sif\cE¨mawmfokdUtat;"mwf0ifvmojzifh teD;½Sdyxr ouFef;ukd qGJjcKHawmfrlvkduf\/ oef;acgif,mrfvGefí rdk;aomuf,mrfokdYa&mufaom tcg tat;"mwf0ifvmjyefojzifh 'kwd,ouFef;ukd qGJ,ljcKHvkduf&jyef\/ t½kPfwuf csdefa&mufvmaomtcg tat;"mwf0ifvmjyefojzifh usef½Sdaeao;aom ouFef;ukd qGJ,líjcHKvkduf&jyef\/ tat;qkH;tcsdefvGefajrmufNyD;aemuf aea&mifjcnfxGufay:vm ojzifh jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifonf tat;'PfESifhouFef;vkdtyfcsufprf;oyfjcif;ukd ½kwfodrf; awmfrlum rlvae&mokdUjyefMuGawmfrl\/

jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifonf rlvae&mokdUjyefa&mufawmfrlaomtcg &[ef;awmfwkdU tm; pnf;a0;apvsuf a0omvDjynfokdUMuGawmfrlpOf vrf;c&D;ütMuHjzpfykHrStp ouFef; av;xnfjzifh prf;oyfawmfrlykHtqkH;tvkH;pkHukdjyefvnfrdefYMum;awmfrlNyD;vQif &[ef; awmfwkdYtm; ]]&[ef;wdkY... xkdigbk&m;tm; þomoemawmfü csrf;wwfaomoabm ½Sdukefaom trsdK;aumif;om;wkdUonf okH;xnfaomouFef;jzifh a&mifh&JrQwjcif;iSg pGrf;Ekdifukef\/ igonf &[ef;wkdUtm; ouFef;tykdif;tjcm;ukd zGJU&rlç tykdif;tjcm;ukd xm;&rlokH;xnfaom ouFef;ukdcGifhjyK&rl aumif;avpG}}[ktBuHjzpf\/ ]]&[ef;wkdU... ESpfxyfaom'kkuk#fouFef;? wpfxyfaom ukd,f0wfouFef;? wpfxyfaomoif;ykdif þ okH;xnfaomouFef;ukdcGifhjyK\}} [krdefYawmfrlum &[ef;awmfwkdUtm; 'kuk#f? {uoD? oif;ykdif[laomouFef;okH;xnfukd uefUowfcGifhjyKawmfrlygonf/

2; 2; 11/ / 'kuk#fouFef; cGifhjyKcsdefavhvmcsuf

jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifonf &[ef;awmfrsm; ouFef;trsm;tjym;ukd tokH;jyKí txkyfBuD; txkyfi,ftoG,foG,fwkdYjzifh c&D;oGm;aeMuonfukd jrifawmfrlojzifh ouFef;ta&twGufukd ykdif;jcm;owfrSwfawmfrljcif;iSg txufwGifazmfjycJhonfhtwdkif; ouFef;av;xnfjzifh ukd,fawmfwkdifprf;oyfawmfrlNyD;aemuf &[ef;awmfwkdYtm; 'kuk#f? {uoD? oif;ykdif[laomouFef;okH;xnfukd cGifhjyKawmfrlygonf/ xkdkokdYcGifhrjyKrDtcsdefu &[ef;awmfrsm;wGif'kuk#fouFef;[lí oD;oefYr½Sd? xdktcsdefrwdkifrDu &[ef;awmfwkdYtm; 'kuk#fouFef;cGifhjyKxm;jcif;½Sdr½Sdukd avhvmMunfh&m wdpD0&dwfukdcGifhrjyKrD 0gawmf (20)twGif;ü {[dbdu©L &[ef;wdkYrSwpfyg; tjcm;&[ef;rsm;wGif'kuk#fouFef;[lí oD;oefYr½Sdao;aMumif; oif;ykdifESifh{uoDrsm;om½SdNyD; {uoDukd tykdaqmifí tokH; jyKcJhaMumif; avhvmawGY½Sd&ygonf/ bk&m;½SifouFef;prf;oyfykHukdjy&m ygVdawmfü ]]{upD0a&mç'kwd,HpD0&Hçwwd,HpD0&HçpwkwH pD0&H}}[lí ouFef;av;xnfjzifh prf;oyf aMumif;yg½Sdjcif;? wdpD0&dwfcGifhjyKykHygVdawmfü ]]'d*kPH oHCm#d {upöd,H Owå&mo*øç {upöd,H tEÅ&0gouH}}[k 'kuk#fac:ESpfxyfouFef;? {uoD? oif;ykdifþokH;xnfukd cGifhjyKawmfrlaMumif;yg½Sdjcif;wkdYu wdpD0&dwfcGifhrjyKrDtxd 'kuk#fouFef;cGifhrjyKao; onfukd ñTefjyaeouJhokdYyifjzpfonf/

]]{aum pD0a&m edoD'd? 'kwd,H pD0&Hç wwd,HpD0&Hç pwkwHpD0&H yg½kyd}}[laom ygVdawmfav;csuft& oif;ykdifwpfxnf {uoDokH;xnfukd,lí bk&m;½Sifonf xkd ouFef;av;xnfjzifhprf;oyfNyD;aemuf tykdjzpfaom{uoDESpfxnfukd wpfxnfwnf; jzpfatmif xyfícsKyfum 'kuk#fac:ESpfxyfouFef; tjzpfjzifhcGifhjyKawmfrlonf}} [k t"dyÜg,f,lrSom obm0,kwåd½Sdrnfjzpfygonf/ xkdokdYr[kwfbJ tykdESpfxnfonf 'kuk#fouFef;jzpfonf[lívnf;aumif;? wpfxnfu{uoD? wpfxnfu'kuk#f[k vnf;aumif; t"dyÜg,faumuf,lvsif obm0,kwåd½Sdrnf r[kwfay/ tb,fhaMumifh qdkaomf bk&m;½Sifonf tat;'Pf vkHNcKHEdkifavmufonfhouFef;ta&twGuf txyf tvTmyrmPjzihf prf;oyfawmfrlNyD;aemuf xkdtxyftvTmyrmPjzifhyif ouFef;ta& twGufukd uefYowfcGifhjyKawmfrlxm;aomaMumifhjzpfonf/ xkdUaMumifh ]]{u pD0a&m}} paomygVdawmfav;csuft& oif;ykdifwpfxnfESifh{uoDokH;xnfukd,lNyD; {uoDokH; xnfrStykdjzpfaom {uoDESpfxnfukdxyfcsKyfí 'kuk#ftjzpfcGifhjyKcJhonf[kft"dyÜg,f aumuf,lrSom obm0,kwåd½Sdonf[kqdkcJhjcif;jzpfygonf/ ,if;obm0,kwådt& wdpD0&dwfukdcGifhrjyKrDtxd 'kuk#fouFef;r½Sdao;[kom rSwf,l&rnfjzpfonf/

r[m*E¨m½kHq&mawmfOD;Zeumbd0Houvnf; 'kuk#fouFef;cGifhjyKjcif;ESifhpyfí txufygtwdkif;yif,lqawmfrlygonf/ q&mawmfonf ck'´odu©mbmom#Dumü ]]bk&m;½Sifonf oif;ykdifwpfxnf? {uoDokH;xnfjzihfaeawmfrlNyD;aemuf om0ursm;ukd þtwdkif;ouFef; av;xnfcGifhjyKawmfrl&vQif oGm;av&mt&yfokdY,laqmifzkdY&m wpf xnf tykdygaeojzifh0efav;aomaMumifhoGm;av&mü oif;ykdifukd0wfí {uoDukd&ef;NyD; vQif ESpfxyfouFef;ukdycHk;ay:wifvsufvG,fvG,fululaqmif,lEkdifzkdU tusdK;iSg{uoD ESpfxnfukd ESpfxyfjyKí ]]oHCm#d}}[laomtrnfjzifh ouFef;okH;xnfom cGifhjyKawmfrl onf/ [k zGifhqdka&;om;xm;\/ q&mawmf\t,ltqrSm jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sif ukd,fawmf wkdif ouFef;av;xnfjzihf ukd,fawmfwkdifprf;oyfawmfrlNyD;aemufrS {uoDESpfxnfukd ESpfxyfouFef;csKyfí 'kuk#fftjzpfcGifhjyKawmfrlum wdpD0&dwfukd cGifhjyKawmfrlcJhonf[k qkdjcif;jzpfonf/ þ pum;&yfjzifhvnf; ouFef;av;xnfjzifhrprf;oyfrDwdpD0&dwfukdcGifh rjyKrDtxd ]]'kuk#fkouFef;r½Sdao;}}[komrSwf,l&ayrnf/

pifppf{uoDESpfxnfukdwpfpyfwnf;aygif;í ESpfxyfouFef;jyKvkyfonfqkdjcif; rSm obm0,kwådoifhvSygonf/ tu,fí ESpfxyf ouFef; ukdoD;jcm;cGifhjyKrnfqkdygu wpfxnfESifhwpfxnfrwlnDojzifh 'kuk#fouFef;ü ausmom; &ifom;([kdbuf'Dbuf) wlnDEdkifzG,f½Sdrnfr[kwfay/ ,cktcgouFef;BuD;ü ausm&if tH0if*GifusnDrQatmif csKyfvkyf&jcif;ukdaxmufaomf {uoDESpfxnfrS ESpfxyfouFef;BuD;jzpf vmonf[k qkdrIonf obm0usonf[kqkd&rnfjzpfygonf/

xkdYjyif ygpdwsm'dt|uxm wdpD0&mEkZmeeuxmtzGifhü ]]bk&m;½Sifonf ukd,f awmfwkdifrlouFef;av;xnfjzifhprf;oyfNyD; &[ef;wkdYukdrl ouFef;okH;xnfomcGifhjyK onf}} [k&[ef;wkdYruJh&JUap&ef ESpfxyfouFef;ukd cGifhjyKawmfrlonf/ xkdokdYcGifhjyKojzihf 'kuk#frSm ESpfxyfjzpfí ESpfxnfESifhwl&um; oif;ykdif {uoDtm;jzifh &[ef;wkdUrSm bk&m;½Sifprf;oyfawmfrlouJhokdYav;xnfyifjzpfonf}}[kzGifhjyxm;onfukdawGY&ygonf/ þt|uxm pum;jzifhvnf; ouFef;av;xnfjzifhrprf;oyfrD wdpD0&dwfcGifhrjyKrDtxd ]]'kuk#fouFef; r½Sdao;}}[kod½SdEkdifygonf/

þae&mü0denf;r[m0gygVdawmf ]]OyorÜ'0d"d}}vm&[ef;avmif;qkH;rykHwGif]]t,H aw yawåm? t,H oHCm#d? t,H Owå&moa*Fg? t,H tEÅ&0goaum}} [kyg½Sdaom aMumifh wdpD0&dwfcGifhrjyKrDuyif 'kuk#fouFef;ukd cGifhjyKNyD;jzpfonf[kqkdzG,f½Sdygonf/ xkdokdYrrSwf,loifhay? tb,fhaMumifhqkdaomf 4if;OyorÜ'0d"dvm&[ef;avmif;qkH;rykH t pDtpOfonfbk&m;½Sif0g(20)ausmfNyD;rSñTefjyaomtpDtpOfjzpfaomaMumifhjzpfygonf/

azmfjyyg obm0,kwåd? tm*r,kwådwkdYukdaxmufqygu bk&m;½Sifonf 0gawmf (20)ausmfrS orm;awmfZD0u\ avsmufxm;csuft& *[ywdpD0&ukd cGifhjyKawmfrlNyD; xkdaemufrS ouFef;rsm;ukdpepfwus tuGufazmfí jzwfcsKyfcGifhjyKawmfjcif;? ukd,fawmf wkdif prf;oyfNyD;aemuf wdpD0&dwfukd cGifhjyKawmfrljcif;wkdY tqifhqifhjzpfay:vm&m bk&m; ½Sif 0gawmf(20)ausmfrSyif 'kuk#fouFef;ukd cGifhjyKawmfrljcif;jzpfonf[k rSwf,l&rnf jzpfygonf/

2; 2; 12/ / ouFef;okH;xnfxuftykd rxm;&efwm;jrpfawmfrljcif;

txufüqkdcJhonfhtwkdif; &[ef;awmfwkdYtm; 'kuk#f {uoD oif;ykdif[laom ouFef;okH;xnfukd cGifhjyKaMumif; bk&m;½SifrdefYawmfrlaomtcg qAÁ*¾D&[ef;wkdYonf 4if;wkdU\óOftwkdif; Oya'vufwpfvkH;jcm;jyKvkyf&eftm;xkwfMuukef\/ qAÁ*¾D&[ef; wkdYonf wdpD0&dwfouFef;okH;xnf cGifhjyKonf[k omrntm;jzifh jrwfpGmbk&m;½SifrdefY awmfrljcif;jzpfonf/ oGm;av&m&mü þwdpD0&dwfomaqmifxm;&rnf[k 0daoorç írdefYqkdjcif;r[kwf[kqkdum ausmif;üaepOf0wfonfhwdpD0&dwf? NrdKUwGif; ½GmwGif;oGm; pOf 0wf½kHonfhwdpD0&dwf? a&csdK;oGm;pOf 0wf½kHonhfwdpD0&dwf[lí wdpD0&dwf okH;rsdK;xm; um0wf½kHokH;pGJMuukef\/ xkdodkYokH;pGJjcif;udk tjcm;&[ef;wkdYodjrifMuaomtcguJh&JU ukefvsuf jrwfpGmbk&m;tm; xkdtaMumif;udkavQmufxm;Muukef\/ bk&m;½Sifonf qAÁ*¾D&[ef;wkdY\ wdpD0&dwftydkaqmifjcif;udktaMumif;jyKí ]]e bdu©a0 twda&upD0&H "ma&wAÁH? a,m "ma&,s ,xm"ar®m uma&waAÁm}} ]]&[ef;wkdY... ydkif;jcm;owfrSwf tyfNyD;aomokH;xnfaomouFef;wkdYrS tydktvGefjzpfaomouFef;udk (wpfenf;) t"d|mef wiftyfNyD;aomouFef;rS tydktvGefjzpfaomouFef;udkraqmiftyf? aqmifaom&[ef;udk w&m;tm;avsmfpGmjyK&rnf}} [krdefYawmfrlumouFef;okH;xnfxuftydkrxm;&ef wm;jrpf awmfrlygonf/ odkYaomf &[ef;wpfyg;yg;tm; 'g,umwpfOD;OD;u ouFef;vSL'gef;vQif tvSLcH,lí xdktydkjzpfaomouFef; udkt"d|mefrwifbJ0duyÜemjyKNyD;xm;vQif &uftuefY towfr½Sdxm;Ekdif\/ (10) &ufvGefaomfvnf; edó*¾dygpdwftmywfroifhay/ þum; wdpD0&dwf"kwifraqmifaom omref&[ef;awmfrsm;twGufomjzpfygonf/

wdpD0&dwf "kwifaqmufwnfaom&[ef;awmfrsm;um; ouFef;okH;xnfrStydkjzpf aomouFef;ukd aqmifxm;cGifhr½Sdacs/ ouFef;okH;xnfomvQif½Sd&rnfjzpfonf/ ouFef; a[mif;EGrf;aqG;ajrYysufpD;rSom tjcm;ouFef;udktvSLcH,lydkifcGifh½Sdygonf/ þum; wdpD0&dwf"kwifaqmif &[ef;wkdYowdjyK&rnfh taMumif;t&mrsm;yifjzpfygonf/

2; 2; 13/ / wdpD0&dwf"kwif ysufpD;jcif;

þwdpD0&dwf"kwifukd aqmufwnfMuukefaom&[ef;awmfwkdYonf 0wf½kHavmuf aom av;xnfajrmufaomouFef;ukd 0wf½kHokH;aqmif&efom,maomcPüyif "kwif ysufygonf/

2; 2; 14/ / wdpD0&dwf"kwif aqmif&jcif;\tusdK;tmedoifrsm;

wdpD0&dwf"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf rdrdcE¨mudk,fukd aqmifEkdif½kHrQaomouFef;jzifh ESpfodrfha&mifh&Jauseyf&\/ xkdYaMumifhwdpD0&dwf"kwifaqmif&[ef;tm; atmufygtusdK; tmedoifrsm;ukd &½SdEdkifygonf/

1/ iSuf\ysHoGm;jcif;uJhokdY y&du©&mukd,laqmifí oGm;vkd&mc&D;udk vG,fulpGm oGm;vmEkdifjcif;/ 2/ enf;aomudpö½Sdjcif;/ 3/ t0wftxnfffokdrSD;odrf;qnf;xm;jcif;ukd a½SmifMuOfNyD;jzpfjcif;/ 4/ ayghyg;aom toufarG;rI½Sdjcif;/ 5/ okH;xnfxufykdaomouFef;ü wyfrufarmaomavmvkyÜwPSmukdy,fjcif;/ 6/ ouFef;okH;xnfjzifhom 0wf½kHaexkdifavh½SdaomaMumifh acgif;yg;aomtouf arG;rI½Sdjcif;tp½Sdaom tusdK;tmedoifrsm;ukd&½SdcHpm;Ekdifygonf/

2; 2; 15/ / ayghyg;vdkvQif wdpD0&dwf"kwifqif

ouFef;okH;xnfukdomaqmifaom ynm½Sdaoma,m*D&[ef;awmfonf okH;xnf xuf ykdvGefaomt0wfouFef;ü wyfrufwwfaomwPSmukd y,fNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh ouFef;rsm;okdrSD;odrf;qnf;jcif;ukd a½SmifMuOfonfjzpf&um; a&mifh&Jjcif;ü csrf;omjcif; [laomt&omukd cHpm;od½SdEkdif\/ xkdokdYcHpm;od½SdaomaMumifh tawmifomvQif0ef ½SdaomiSufuJhokdY ouFef;okH;xnfom 0wf½kHavh½SdaomaMumifhrdrdoGm;vdk&mt&yf rsufESm okdYcsrf;omvG,fulpGmoGm;vmEkdif\/ okdYjzpf&um; rdrdoGm;vkd&mt&yfokdYcsrf;omvG,ful pGm oGm;a&muf&eftvdk½Sdaom&[ef;onf wdpD0&dwf"kwifukd aqmufwnfusifhokH;oifh vSygonf/

wdpD0&dwf"kwifNyD;\/


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