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"r®'ge á oHC á "kwif á ½ku©rl
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½ku©rl"kwif taMumif;


4; 2; 1/ / ½ku©rl"kwif t"dyÜg,f

opfyif&if; opfyifatmufüaexkdifjcif;onf ½ku©rlv = ½ku©rlrnf\/ opfyif; &if;ü aeavh&Sdaom&[ef;onf ½ku©rlvdurnf\/ xkdopfyif&if;? opfyifatmufü aexkdifavh&Sdaom&[ef;awmf\ tusifhodu©müaqmufwnfaMumif;jzpfaomtaMumif; t*Fgorm'geapwemonf ½ku©rlvdu*F = ½kurl"kwifrnfygonf/

4; 2; 2/ / ½ku©rl"kwif aqmufwnfykH

xkd½ku©rl"kwifukd -

]]qE´H y#du©dygrd? ½ku©rlvdu*ø orm'd,mrd}}[kygVdbmomoufouf jzifhvnf; aumif;? ]]tkwfMuGyf paom trdk;ig;rdsK;wkdYjzifh rdk;tyfaom t&dyftm0goukd y,fyg\/opfyif&if;? opfyifatmufü aeavh&Sdaom&[ef;\ taMumif;t*Fgapwemukd aqmufwnfyg\}}[k jrefrmbmompum;oufoufjzifhvnf;aumif; rdrdESpfouf&mbmom pum;wpfrsdK;rsdK;jzifh aqmufwnfusifhokH;Ekdifygonf/

þü trkd;ig;rdsK;[lonfrSm tkwfMuGyf? ausmufjym;? t*Faw? oufu,fjruf? xef;½Guf? tifzufpaomopf½GufwkdYjzpfygonf/ þtrkd;ig;rsdK;jzifh rkd;tyfaom ausmif;t&dyftm0goukd y,fyg\[kqkdaomaMumifh ,ckacwftrdk;rsm;jzpfaom zsmrkd;? oGyfrkd;? ysOfcsyftrdk;? yvyfpwpftrdk;wkdYjzifh rdk;xm;aom ausmif;\ t&dyftm0go atmufokdY 0ifaumif;\/ aeaumif;\[krrSwfoifhay/ ]]½ku©rlvdu*ø orm'd,mrd}} opfyif;&if;üaejcif;udk aqmufwnfyg\[kqkdaomaMumifhrnfonfhtrdk;jzifhrdk;rdk; trdk;&Sd aom taqmuftODt&dyftm0goqkdvQif r0ifaumif;[kom rSwf,l&rnfjzpfygonf/

4; 2; 3/ / ½ku©rl"kwif aqmif&[ef;raeaumif;aom opfyif(7)yif

½ku©rl"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf]]igonf ½ku©rl"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfjzpfonf}}[kqkd í awGU&mopfyifatmufüraeaumif;ay/ 0dok'¨dr*ft|uxmü ½ku©rl"kwifaqmif&[ef; wkdY aeaumif;onfhopfyif? raeaumif;onfhopfyifwkdYukd jyqkdxm;onfudkawGY& ygonf/ raeaumif;aom opfyifwkdYum; -

1/ wkdif;jynfESpfcktMum;üaygufaom wkdif;Muyfopfyif? (0g) e,fMum;opfyif/ 2/ ½ku©pkd;ewf&Sdonf[lí vlwdkYtav;tjrwfjyKum ylaZmfaomopfyif/ 3/ opfap;yiftp&Sdaom tap;tokH;0ifaom opfyif/ 4/ o&uf? ydEéJpaom toD;&Sdaom opfyif/ 5/ vif;EkdY vif;pGJwkdYaeaom opfyif/ 6/ a>rç uif;ponfatmif;Ekdifonfh tacgif;&Sdaomopfyif/ 7/ ausmif;wkduf\ tv,füaygufaom opfyifwkdYjzpfygonf/

þazmfjyyg opfyif(7)yifwkdYonf ab;tEÅ&m,frsm;BuKHawGUEkdifjcif;? orm"d w&m;ysufjym;apEkdifjcif;paomtaMumif;rsm;aMumifh ½ku©rl"kwifaqmif&[ef;wYkd rae aumif;jcif;jzpfygonf/ "kwifysufapEkdifaomaMumifh raeaumif;onfum;r[kwfay/

½ku©rl"kwifaqmif&[ef;wkdYaeaumif;aomopfyifum; ausmif;wkduftpGeftzsm; ü&SdaomopfyifESifhtjcm;aom ab;Oyg'ftEÅ&m,fuif;í orm"dukdjzpfapEkdifaom wdwf qdwfNidrfoufaomopfyifjzpfygonf/ xkdopfyifatmufüaexkdifí "kwiftusifhukd aqmufwnfusifhokH;Ekdifygonf/

4; 2; 4/ / opfyif&if;ü ae&jcif;\ *kPfq,fyg;

½ku©rl"kwif"kwifaqmufwnfí opfyif&if;ü aexkdifjcif;jzifh atmufyg*kPf aus;Zl;rsm;udk&&SdEkdifaMumif; Ak'¨0Hot|uxmü jyqkdxm;onfudkawGY&ygonf/ xkd*kPf aus;Zl;(10)yg;um; -

1/ opf½Gufrkd;ausmif;ponfwkdYuJhokdY vkHUvpkdufxkwfíaqmuf&efrvkdbJ e*kdu toifh&SdNyD;jzpfí 0ifa&mufckdvkH aevkduf½kHomjzpfjcif;/ 2/ wHjrufvSnf;rIpaom okwfoifapmifha&Smuf&rIr&Sdjcif;/ 3/ ax&fBuD; 0gBuD; oDwif;BuD;wdkYvmaomfvnf; a&SmifvGJxay;&rIr&Sdjcif;/ 4/ opfyif&if;üraumif;rIukd jyKvkyfvQiftrsm;jrifrnfjzpfí &SufaMumufpdwf &Sd&um; uJh&JUzG,f raumif;rIukd ausmif;uJhokdYzkH;uG,fay;p&mr&Sdjcif;/ 5/ trdk;tumr&Sdonfh [if;vif;tjyifvGifwD;aumifüaeaomolrSm udk,fvuf awmifhwif;rIrsm;&SdEkdif\/opfyif&if;üaeaomolrSmum; udk,fvufawmifh wif;rIr&Sdjcif;/ 6/ odrf;ykduftkyfpkd;rI taESmuft,SufrS uif;jcif;/ 7/ ]]ighae&m}}[lí wG,fwmwyfrufrIudk y,fazsmufEkdifjcif;/ 8/ trsm;ESifhqufqHa&m>yrf;aom ausmif; tdrfwkdUuJhodkY ]]þausmif;udk ok"f oiftHh? oifwkdYcPxGufMuukef}}[lí olwpfyg;wkdY ESifxkwfrIr&Sdjcif;/ 9/ opfyif&if;ü aeaomoltm; ESpfoufrI(yDwdw&m;)ukd &&SdEkdifapjcif;/ 10/ opfyif&if;wnf;[laomausmif;onf a&muf&mt&yfü &Sm&vG,fulaom aMumifh]]ighae&m? ighausmif;}}[kiJhuGufrIr&Sdjcif;wkdYjzpfygonf/

þ*kPf(10)yg;wkdYonf opfyif&if;ü aexkdifjcif;aMumifh&&Sdaom *kPfaus;Zl;rsm;yifjzpfygonf/

4;2; 5/ / opf½Gufrkd;ausmif;\ tjypf&Spfyg;

opf½Gufrkd;ç oGyfrkd;ç ysOfcsyfrkd;ç opfom;rkd;ponfh trdk;rkd;aomtaqmuftOD; atmufüaeaomoltm; atmufygtjypf&Spfyg;wkdY jzpfay:vmEkdifaMumif; Ak'¨0Ho t|uxmü jyqkdxm;onfudkawGU&ygonf/

1/ opfom;taqmuftODwdkYukd vkHYvBuD;pGm pkaqmif;&SmrSD;jyKvkyf&jcif;/ 2/ jrufrkd; opf½Gufrkd;eH&HajrpkdifwkdYaqG;ajrUysufpD;avsmusonf&Sdaomf topfw zefwnfaqmufjcif;jzifh tNrJrjywfapmifha&Smufokwfoifjyifqif&jcif;/ 3/ ausmif;[lonfum; odu©mBuD; 0gBuD;aomyk*¾dKvfwkdY\ ae&mjzpf&um; rdrd xuf0gBuD;aomyk*¾dKvfwpfyg;yg;a&muf&Sdvmonf&Sdaomf tcgra½G;z,f&Sm;í ay;ae&ojzifh orm"dr&Ekdifjcif;? &NyD;om; orm"dw&m;vnf;ysufEkdifjcif;/ 4/ tcsrf;tylwkdYudk ausmif;uumuG,fEkdifojzifhausmif;aeyk*¾dKvfonf rdrdudk,f udkEl;nhHodrfarGUatmif jyKvkyfae&ma&mufjcif;/ 5/ trdk;tum&Sdaomausmif;ç tdrftwGif;odkY 0ifaeolonf wpfpkHwpfckaom r aumif;rIukdjyKvkyfEkdifonfjzpf&um;uJh&UJzG,fraumif;rIukd zkH;uG,fay;ouJh okdYjzpfjcif;/ 6/ ighausmif;[lí wPSmjzifhpGJ,ljcif;\ taMumif;wpfckjzpfjcif;/ 7/ ausmif;&Sdaejcif;onf tazmf(r,m;)&SdaeonfESifhwljcif;/ (0g) tdrfaxmifus onfESifhwljcif;/ 8/ oef;ç Murf;ykd;ç tdrfajr§mifponfwkdYESifhqufqHíae&jcif;

þtjypf&Spfyg;wkdY onf opf½Gufrkd;ausmif;ü &&SdEdkifaom tjypfrsm;jzpfygonf/

½ku©rl"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf txufazmfjyygopfyif&if;\ *kPfq,fyg;ESifh opf½Gufrkd;ausmif;\tjypf&Spfyg;wkdYudkem;vnfxm;&rnfjzpfygonf/ okdYrSom opf½Guf rkd;ausmif;ukd y,fpGefYNyD; opfyif&if;okdYcsnf;uyfvkdpdwfjzpfay:rnfjzpfonf/ opfyif&if; üaexkdifoDwif;okH;jcif;onf um,okc? pdwåokcESpfyg;ESifh jynfhpkHEkdif\/ bk&m; tavmif; okar"m&Sif&aohonf opf½Gufrkd;ausmif;\ tjypf&Spfyg;? opfyif&if;\ *kPfq,fyg;wkdYukdodjrifaomaMumifh opf½Gufrkd;ausmif;udky,fpGefYum opfyif&if;ü &moufyefaexkdifoDwif;okH;cJhavonf/

4; 2; 6/ / ½ku©rl"kwif aqmifyk*¾dKvfokH;rsdK;

½ku©rl"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf -

1/ Ouú| ½ku©rlvdu = tjrwfpm; ½ku©rl"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf/ 2/ rZÑdr ½ku©rlvdu = tvwfpm; ½ku©rl"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf/ 3/ rk'k½ku©rlvdu = tnhHpm;½ku©rl"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf[lí

okH;rsdK;uGJjym;\/ xkdokH;rsdK;wkdUwGif -

1/ tjrwfpm;½ku©rl"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf rdrdoabmus ESpfouf&m opfyifukd a½G;í &Sif;vif;okwfoifcGifhr&Sd? aMuGusaeaomopf&GufwkdYukd ajcjzifhz,f&Sm;í avsmuf ywfaomopfyif&if;atmufüomaexkdif&\/

2/ tvwfpm;½ku©rl"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf rdrdoDwif;okH;rnfhopfyifatmufodkY a&mufvmMuaom olwdkYukd okwfoif&Sif;vif;&efapckdif;Ekdif\/ wrifoufoufac:,lí um; r&Sif;cdkif;aumif;ay/

3/ rk'kac: tnHhpm;½ku©rl"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf tm&mrfapmifh'g,umrsm;? &SifomraPrsm;ukdac:í rdrdoDwif;okH;rnfhopfyifatmufukd&Sif;vif;apjcif;? rnDñGwf aomajrtjyifukd nDñGwfatmifjyKjcif;? oifjzL;rsm;cif;apjcif;? apmif;wef;tumt&HjyK apjcif;? xkdtumt&Hudk wHcg;rsm;wyfapjcif;rsm;udkjyKvkyfum rdrdoabmusovkd aexkdifEkdif\/

4; 2; 7/ / ½ku©rl"kwifESifh taAÇmumodu"kwif ESpfyg;udk rkd;av;vüaqmufwnfcGifh&Sd^r&Sd

t&Sifa'0'wfonf oHCmtoif;cGJ&ef[laom &nf½G,fcsufjzifh jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif tm; qkig;yg;udkawmif;qkd&mwGif ]]&[ef;tm;vkH;onf opfyif&if;wnf;[laom ausmif;üomae&rnf? trdk;atmuf0ifaom&[ef; tmywfoifhap[kynwfyg}} [laom awmif;qkdcsufESifhywfoufí jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sifu]]a'0'wf &SpfvywfvkH; opfyif&if; wnf;[laomausmif;üaejcif;udk cGifhjyKxm;NyD}} [laomrdefYqkdcsuf&SdaomaMumifhvnf; aumif;? xkdYjyif0denf;t|uxm'kwd,tkyfü]]rkd;av;vywfvkH;rlum; opfyif&if;wnf; [laomausmif;ü aejcif;udky,fjrpfxm;onfomwnf;}} [kzGifhqkdaomaMumifhvnf; aumif;? yg&mZduPfbmom#Dum pwkwwGJ? yXroHCab'uodu©myk'fü y#du©dwåar0 = e bdu©a0 taoemoedau 0óH Oy*EÅAÁH}}[laom odu©myk'fawmfjzihf rkd;tcg ausmif;r&SdbJ ½ku©rlvürae&[ky,fjrpfNyD;jzpfonf/ xkdodkYrkd;av;vtwGufomy,fjrpf awmfrlí ]]t|rmaoacg r,m a'0'wå ½ku©rlvaoemoeH tEknmwH}}[k usef&Spfv twGufcGihfjyKawmfrlonf}}[k a&;om;zGihfqkd;xm;aomaMumihfvnf;aumif; rdk;av;vü ½ku©rl"kwifudkaqmufwnfcGifhr&Sd[krSwf&ygrnf/

taAÇmumodu"kwifESifhpyfvsOf;í 0denf;r[m0gygVdawmfü ]]ausmif;r&SdbJ [if;vif;jyifü 0gruyftyf? 0guyfvQif 'kuú#ftmywfoifh\}} [laomynwfcsuf rsm;yg&SdaomaMumifhvnf;aumif; rdk;av;vtwGif;ü taAÇmumodu "kwifudk raqmuf wnfaumif;ouJhokdY&Sd\? odkYaomf wHcg;ESifhwuG rkd;vkHaom ausmif;&SdvQif rdk;av;vtwGif;ü 0guyfaumif;onfomjzpfygonf/

rSefygonf/ xkd taMumif;udk0dok'¨dr*fr[m#Dumü]]trkd;atmufü aejcif;jzifh "kwifrysufEkdif? w&m;emjcif;ponfudpö&SdvQif trdk;atmufokdY0ifaumif;\/ trkd;&Sd aomt&dyftm0goüaepOf t½kPfwufonfudkodvsuf[if;vif;jyifodkYrxGufbJ trkd; atmufü qufvufíaexkdifrSom "kwifysufonf}}[k zGifhqkdxm;onfudkawGY&\/

xkdzGifhqkdcsufudkaxmufqí taAÇmumodu"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf [if;vif; jyifütNrJ ae&rnf[krqkdvkd? ygVdoifjcif;? Oykofy0g&PmjyKjcif;? w&m;emjcif;paom taMumif;udpö&SdvQiftrkd;atmufokdY0ifaumif;\? "kwifrysuf[krSwf&ygrnf/ ½ku©rl "kwifüvnf; þenf;wlrSwf,lEkdifygonf/ xkdYaMumifh rdk;av;vüoifhwifhaom jrufrkd; ausmif;i,fudk&vQiftaAÇmumodu"kwifudk aqmufwnfusifhokH;EkdifaMumif;rSwf,l&yg onf/

4; 2; 8/ / ½ku©rl"kwif ysufpD;jcif;

txufüazmfjycJhaom ½ku©rl"kwifaqmif&[ef;wkdYonf tkwfMuGyfponfjzifhrdk; xm;aom t&dyftm0go&Sd&mü aevkdaomqE´jzifh 0ifíaeaom cPüvnf;aumif;? w&m;emjcif;paomudpöponfaMumifh trdk;atmuf0ifpOft½kPfwufrSef;odvsufquf vufíaeaomcPüvnf;aumif; ½ku©rl"kwifysufpD;ygonf/

t*Fkwå&edum,faqmif rax&fwkdYuvnf; ]]odvsuftrkd;&Sdaom t&dyftm0goü t½kPfwufapcJhaomf "kwifysufonf}}[kqkdMuonf/ xkdYaMumifh trdk;atmuf0iffpOf t½kPfwufawmhrnf[kodvQif opfyif&if;okdYvnf;aumif;? [if;vif;tjyifodkYvnf; aumif;xGufíaexkdif&rnfjzpfygonf/ odkYrSomþ½ku©rl"kwifysufpD;rIrS uif;vGwfrnf jzpfygonf/

4; 2; 9/ / ½ku©rl"kwif aqmufwnf&jcif;\ tusdK;tmedoifrsm;

þ½krl"kwifudkaqmufwnfusifhokH;jcif;aMumifh atmufazmfjyyg tudsK;tmedoif rsm;ukd &&SdEkdifygonf/ 4if;wkdYum; -

  1. ]]½ku©rlvaoemoeH edóm, yAÁZÆm}}[laomjrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif\ pum;awmf t&&[ef;odu©mudk,füwnfaeorQumvywfvkH; opfyif&if;wnf;[laom ausmif;udk trSDjyKíaeygrnf}}[laom wwd,edó,ESifhavsmfaom tusifh &Sdjcif;/
  2. wefzkd;enf;í &vG,fonf? tjypfuif;ayonf[k bk&m;&SifcsD;rGrf;tyfaom ypönf;&Sdoljzpfjcif;/
  3. opf½GufwkdY\ rjywfajymif;vJazmufjyefjcif;ukd jrif&ojzifh tedpöonmudk jzpfapEkdifjcif;/
  4. ausmif;ESifhpyfí 0efwkdrIuif;jcif;/
  5. ausmif;aMumifhjzpfaom trIudpövkyfief;ü arGYavsmfrIr&Sdjcif;/
  6. ½ku©pkd;ewfwkdYESifh twlae&onfjzpfjcif;/
  7. tydpäwmpaom*kPfwkdY\tusdK;tm;avsmfaomtoufarG;rI&Sdjcif;wdkYjzpfyg onf/

½ku©rl"kwiftaMumif;NyD;\/

4; 2; 10/ / wkdufwGef;csuf

jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sifonf ]]tzkd;enf;í&vG,faomopfyif&if;wnf;[laom ausmif; wkdYonf tjypfuif;ukef\/ &[ef;tjzpf\ rSD&medó,vnf;jzpf\}}[lí csD;rGrf;awmfrl tyfaomaMumifh opfyif&if;ESifhwlaom ae&mrnfonfr&Sd/ opfyif&if;ü at;csrf;pGm aejcif;onf ausmif;[laomtm0goukdrSDíjzpfay:aom tm0gorpä&d,ukd y,fowf onfrnf\/ ausmif;uJhokdYt&Htwm;? tapmifhta&Smufr&SdbJ ½ku©pkd;ewfwkdY\ apmifh a&SmufrIukdomcH&oljzpf\/vloluif;qdwfaomopfyif&if;üaeaom&[ef;onf 0da0u w&m;okH;yg;ukd&&SdEkdif\/ ½Gufa[mif;aMuGp ½GwfopfEkptcgumvü awmufrnfh&J&J rD;vQHcJokdY eDaxG;wifhw,faom tqif;&Sdaom opf½GufwkdYukd jrifaom tcgumv? &ifhaomtcg jra&mifjraoG;uJhokdY pdrf;pkdaomopf½GufwkdYukd jrif&aom tcgumv? &ifh&mrSwqifhwufí eEGif;a&miftqif;uJhokdY rSnfh0if;0gvmaom tcgumvwkdYü opf½GwfwkdY\azmufjyefysufpD;wwfykHudk awGYjrif&aomaMumifh jrJonf[kxifjrif,lq aomtrSwfonmudk y,fazsmufEkdif\/

jrwfpGmbk&m;&SifzGm;awmfrl&m? yGifhawmfrl&m? w&m;a[mawmfrl&m? y&dedAÁmef jyK awmfrl&mtcgwdkYü opfyif&if;udkom tjrwfwEdk;csnf;uyfawmfrlcJh\/ xkdYaMumifhopf yif&if;onf bk&m;paomt&d,myk*¾dKvfwkdY\ ae&mXmevnf;jzpfygonf/ þodkYtm;jzifh opfyif&if;onf jrifhjrwf&mXmejzpfaomaMumifh ynmtajrmfjrifESifhjynfhpkHaom&[ef; onf þ½ku©rl"kwiftusifhukdusifhokH;oifhvSaMumif;wdkufwGef;vkduf&ygonf/


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