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"r®'ge á oHC á "kwif á okomef
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okomef"kwif taMumif;


4; 4; 1/ / okomef"kwif t"dyÜg,ff

okomeft&yfü aeavh&Sdaom&[ef;udk aomomedu = okomefae&[ef;[k ac:\/ xkdokomefü aeavh&Sdaom &[ef;\ tusifhodu©mü aqmufwnfaMumif;jzpf aom taMumif;t*Fgapwemonf aomomedu*F = okomef"kwifrnf\/

4; 4; 2/ / okomef"kwif aqmufwnfykH

xkdokomef"kwifukd -

]]e okomeH y#du©dygrd? aomomedu*ø orm'd,mrd}} [kygVdbmom oufoufjzifhvnf;aumif;? ]]okomefr[kwfaomt&yfudky,fyg\/ okomefüaeavh&Sd aom&[ef;\ taMumif;t*Fgapwemudk aqmufwnfyg\}}[kjrefrmbmompum; oufoufjzifhvnf;aumif; rdrdESpfouf&mbmompum;wpfrsdK;rsdK;jzifh aqmufwnf usifhokH;Ekdifygonf/

4; 4; 2; 1/ / okomeft&yf owfrSwfcsuf

þü okomeft&yfESifhywfoufí 0dok'¨dr*ft|uxmü atmufygtwkdif; jyqkdxm;onfudk awGU&ygonf/

okomeft&yf[lonf ½GmopfwnfaxmifolwkdYu]]þt&yfum; okomeft&yf wnf;}}[kEIwfjzifh ykdif;jcm;owfrSwf½kHrQjzifhokomefrrnfao;? tb,faMumifhqkdaomf xdk t&yfü vlaoaumifudk rD;oN*ØK[f jr§KyfESHrIrjyKao;aomaMumifhjzpfonf/ xkdt&yfrsdK;ü okomef"kwif aqmufwnfír&? vlaoaumifudk rD;oN*ØK[fjr§KyfESHrI jyKNyD;onfhumvrS píokomefrnf\/ xkdt&yfudkvlrjr§KyfbJ (12)ESpfwkdifatmif pGefYypfxm;apumrl okomef [komac:&\/ xkdt&yfrsdK;üomokomef"kwifukd aqmufwnf&rnfjzpfygonf/

4; 4; 3/ / okomef"kwif aqmif&[ef;vkdufem&rnfhpnf;urf;rsm;

okomef"kwifukd aqmufwnfaom &[ef;onf ]]trIudpöenf;&rnf? ayghaom toufarG;rI&Sd&rnf}}[k0dok'¨dr*fr[m#Dumü jyqkdxm;aomaMumifh okomeft&yfü pBuø [email protected];? anmifapmif;tif;ysOfudkcif;umaexkdifjcif;? aomufa&okH;aqmif a&rsm;wnfxm;jcif;? w&m;a[mw&m;jyjcif;? pmayykdYcsjcif;wkdUudkjyKvkyfum xifxif ay:ay:raeaumif;ay/ vlrod olrodbJtESpfajcmufq,fywfvkH; okomefü aexkdif oDwif;okH; oGm;aom r[mokrax&fuJhodkY aexkdifoDwif;oHk;&m\/

oif;csdKif;ajr[lac:qkd&aom okomefwpjyifü aexkdifumusifhokH;&jcif;[kqkd tyfaom þokomef"kwiftusifhonfyk*¾dKvfwkdif;twGuf usifhaqmufEkdif&ef tvGefcuf cJaom"kwifjzpfav\/ t&m&mukdraMumufr½GUH &ifqkdif&Jaom owådESifhjynfhpkH&efvnf; vkd\/ xdkYaMumifh okomef"kwifukdraqmufwnfrDa&S;OD;pGm aeYcif;umvwGif okomef odkYoGm;a&mufí okomefü&Sdaomt&mtm;vkH;ukd avhvmrSwfom; xm;&rnf/ aeYcif;ü oGm;a&mufavhvmNyD;onfhaemufüvnf; ncif;umvü xyfrHíoGm;a&muf&rnf/ tb,fhaMumifhqkdaomf aeYcif;umvxuf ntcgumvonf vlom;wkdY\ pdwfudk ydkí ajcmufjcm;ap\/ okomefwpjyifwpfckvkH;ukd tarSmifxku vTrf;rkd;xm;onfjzpf&m aeY tcguawGYjrif&aomt&m0wKukdyif ]]vlavm? acG;avm}} [k,kHrSm;rdwwfav\/ xkdokdY ,kHrSm;rdaomtcgü aMumufpdwfjzpfay:vmwwfav\/ aeYtcgumvu okomefü&Sd aom tkwf*l? opfikwfwkd? ajrykHponfwkdYukd aocsmpGm avhvmxm;vQifum; okomefü &Sdaomt&m0wKwkdYudk trSeftwkdif;yif odjrifxm;onfhtwGufaMumifh aMumufpdwf jzpfay:vdrfhrnfr[kwfay/ xkdokdYntcgumvü okomefodkYoGm;pOf aMumufpdwfvkH;0 r&Sdonfh tcgrSom okomef"kwifudk aqmufwnfusifhokH;oifhygonf/

vlaojr§KyfESH&ma'ojzpfonfh okomefwpjyifonf raumif;rIjyKaom olckd; "m;jywkdY\ykef;atmif;&mae&ma'ojzpf\/ okomef"kwif aqmufwnfaom&[ef;tzkdY xkdolckd;"m;jywkdY\ tEÅ&m,fESifhvnf;BuHKawGYEkdifav\/ xkdYaMumifh okomefapmifh (okb&mZm)? ½GmolBuD;ESifh xkdokomef0ef;usif&Sdausmif;xkdifrax&fBuD;wkdYtm; rdrd okomef"kwifaqmufwnfrnfjzpfaMumif;a&S;OD;pGmyefMum;tyf\/ rSefygonf/ wpfcg wpf&H ckd;olwdkYonf ypönf;ykdif&SifwdkYu vdkufízrf;qD;Muaomtcg rdrdckd;,lvmcJhaom ypönf;OpömwdkYudk vGwfzG,frjrifygu okomefüpGefYypfí xGufajy;oGm;wwfMu\/ xkdtcg Opöm&SifwdkYu okomef"kwifaqmif&[ef;tm; olckd;tjzpfrSwf,lí tEÅ&m,f jyKwwfMu\/ tu,fíokomefapmifh? ½GmolBuD;? okomef0ef;usif&Sdausmif;xkdif rax&f BuD;wkdYtm; BudKwifítaMumif;Mum;xm;ygvQif xkdyk*¾dKvfwdkYu wm0ef,lajz&Sif;ay;onfh twGuf ab;tEÅ&m,frSvGwfuif;Ekdifav\/ xkdYaMumifh okomef"kwifraqmufwnfrD qkdif&myk*¾dKvfwdkYtm; yefMum;xm;&rnf[kqkd&jcif;jzpfygonf/

xkdYtjyifokomef"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf okomefüaeaom wapä? ajrbkwfp onfwdkY BudKufESpfoufwwfaom ig;çtrJpaom tom;rsm;udkvnf; rpm;oifhay/ tb,fhaMumifhqkdaomf avcsnfwufonfhtcg pm;xm;aomtpm;tpmrsm;\teHUonf tjyifodkYxGuf vmwwfojzifh raumif;qkd;0g; emembm0rsm;\ qmavmifrGwfodyfrIukd zdwfac:ouJhokdYjzpfaeygonf/ tcsdKUaomewfbDvl; ewfrdpämwkdYonf vlwdkY\0rf;udk azmufíjrifEkdifaom wefckd;£'¨dyg'frsm;&Sd&um; vlwkdYpm;xm;aom trJ ig;ponfwkdYukd jrifvQiftvGef pm;csifonfh tmomqE´wPSmavmbjyif;pGmjzpfNyD; taESmuft,Suf jyKwwf avonf/ xkdYaMumifh trJom; ig;ponhf wapäo&JwdkYBudKuf ESpfoufwwfonfh tpm; tpmrsm;udk rpm;oifh[kqkd&jcif;jzpfygonf/

okomef"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf nOfhbufvlajcwdwfcsdefrSom okomefodkYoGm;í tokbur®|mef;pD;jzef;&\/ eHeufapmapmtcsdefü vlwkdYtdyf&mrSrxrD ausmif;okdYjyef& \/ okomefrS ausmif;odkYtjyefwGif 'g,um 'g,dumrwkdY\ tdrfrsm;odkYr0ifoifhay/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf okomeft&yfrSjyefvmNyD;aemufrS rdrdwkdY\tdrfokdY 0ifa&mufvm ygur*Fvmr&Sd[k vltcsKdUu,lqMuaomaMumifh jzpfygonf/ rSefygonf/ tcsdKYt&yf a'oütokbtdrfESifh okomefwkdYokdYoGm;a&mufNyD; (tokbykdYNyD;) rdrdtdrfodkYjyefa&muf vmygu xkdtokbtdrf? okomefodkYoGm;pOfu 0wfoGm;aom t0wfudk r*Fvmr&Sd[k ,lqí zGyfavsmfMuavonf/ xkdYjyif eHeufapmapm okomefrS jyefvmaom&[ef;udk awGUjrifygu,kHrSm;oHo,jzpfEkdifaomaMumifhjzpfygonf/ xkdYaMumifhokomefrStjyefwGif 'g,umwkdY\tdrfwdkYodkYr0ifrlí rdrdausmif;odkYomjyefMuG&rnf[kqkd&jcif;jzpfygonf/

nOfhtcgü bD;vl;obufwdkYonf okomeft&yfü[pfatmfí vSnfhvnfaewwf Mu\/ xkdvSnfhvnfaeaom owå0gwdkYudk cJ? tkwfcJ? 'kufponfjzifh rypfcwfoifhay/ xkdowå0gwkdYu rdrdtm; taESmuft,Sufay;ygu arwåmur®|mef;pD;jzef;í ae&rnfjzpf onf/ odkYrSom xkdowå0gwkdY\ aESmuf,Sufjcif;rS uif;a0;rnfjzpfygonf/

4; 4; 4/ /okomef"kwif aqmifr[mumVrax&f

okomef"kwifESifhywfoufí bk&m;&SifvufxufüausmfMum;cJholrSm r[mumV rax&fjzpfygonf/ xkdrax&f\taMumif;ukd "r®y't|uxmrSxkwfEkwfíazmfjyvkdyg\/

aowAsNrdKUwGif olMuG,frdbESpfyg;uG,fvGefaomtcg r[mumV? rZÑdrumV? plVumV[laomom;okH;a,mufusefcJh\/ 4if;wdkYtm;vkH;tdrfaxmifonfcsnf;jzpfaomf vnf; pD;yGm;rcGJMubJtwlwuG aexkdifcJhMuonf/ r[mumVESifhplVumVwkdYu ukefrsm; udk &SmazG0,f,lMuNyD;aowAsNrdKUokdYydkYay;\/ rZÑdrumVuaowAsNrdKUü jzefYjzL;a&mif;cs \/ þodkYtm;jzifh nDtpfudk okH;a,mufwkdYonf ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;vkyfief;rsm;udk wufnDvufnD vkyfudkifMu\/

wpfaeYwGif r[mumVESifhplVumVwdkYonf vSnf;ig;&mjzifh om0wdodkYvmMu\/ om0wdESifhaZw0efausmif;tMum;ü wnf;ckdMu\/ ncsrf;tcg r[mumVu om0wd jynfom;rsm;ESifhtwl aZw0efausmif;okdYoGm;í bk&m;&Sif\ w&m;awmfukd emMum;\/ w&m;emMum;NyD;aomtcg r[mumVonf nDi,fplVumVukd cGifhyefum bk&m;&SifxHü &[ef;jyKcJh\/

r[mumVonf &[ef;jyKNyD;onfhtcsdefrSpí t&[wåzkdvfwkdifatmif a&mufap Ekdifaom tokbur®|mef;ukd ,lum okomef"kwifudk aqmufwnfí 0dyóemtvkyfukd tm;xkwf\/ aemufrMumrD nDjzpfolplVumVvnf;&[ef;jyKcJhjyef\/ plVumV &[ef;jyK &jcif;&nf½G,fcsufum; tpfukdjzpfol r[mumVudk vlYabmifodkYjyefa&mufatmif zsm; a,mif;NyD; a&S;utwdkif;aowAsNrdKUü nDtpfudkokH;a,mufwdkY pnf;pnf;vkH;vkH;jzifh aexkdifoGm;Mu&efjzpf\/ &[ef;w&m;tm;xkwf&ef&nf½G,fí &[ef;jyKcJholr[kwfay/

r[mumVum; bk&m;&Sifa[mawmfrlonfhtwdkdif; £a`E´ig;yg;udk tnDtrQjzpf atmiftm;xkwfvsufnOfhbufvlajcwdwfcsddefü okomefokdYoGm;í tokbur®|mef;ukd pD;jzef;\/ eHeufapmapmtcg vltrsm;tdyf&mrSrxrD ausmif;odkYjyef\/ ausmif;ü qufítm;xkwf\/ þonfrSm omoemabmifütvGefaysmfarTUpGmaexkdifí 0denf; a'oemawmfudkav;pm;Muaomyk*¾dKvfrGefwdkY\ usifhpOfjzpf\/ yk*¾dKvfrGefwdkYonf rdrdwkdY aqmufwnfaom"kwifudk tjcm;olrsm;rod&avatmif twwfEdkifqkH;vQdKY0SufMu\/ ay:ay:xifxif jyK½kd;r&Sdacs/

okomefü umVDrnfaom okomefapmifh&Sd\/ umVDonf yk*¾KdvfwpfOD;\ &yf&m xkdif&m pBuøoGm;&mwkdYudkawGU\/ okdY&mwGif rnfonfhyk*¾dKvfrSef;rod? xkdYaMumifh wpfn wGif acsmif;íapmifh&m vlajcwdwfcsdefoef;acgif,mrfü okomefodkYMuGvmaom r[m umVrax&fukdawGU&av\/ xkdtcg umVDu r[mumVrax&ftm; okomef"kwif aqmif&[ef;wkdYvkdufem&aom usifh0wfrsm;ESifhywfoufí avQmufxm;\/ r[mumV rax&fonf okomefapmifhumVDajymonfhtwkdif; vkdufem\/ tokb½I&ef avsmufywf aomtavmif;aumifudkawGUjrifygutaMumif;Mum;&efvnf;rSmxm;\/ xkdrSmxm;csuf t& a½TuJhokdY0g0if;aomtqif;&Sdaom acsmarmvSyaomrdef;rysdKtavmif; wpfavmif; a&mufvm\/ okomefapmifhumVDtm; rD;oN*ØK[fay;yg&efrSmMum;í tcaMu;aiGay;um rdbaqGrsdK;wdkYjyefoGm;Mu\/

umVDonf xkdtaMumif;udkr[mumVrax&ftm; taMumif;Mum;\/ r[mumV onf okomefodkYMuGvmNyD; xif;ykHxuf&Sdrdef;rysdKtavmif;udk z0g;rSqHzsm;wkdifatmif ½IrSwfízJoGm;\/ xkdYaemufumVDtm; ]]rD;avmifí ½kyftqif;ysufcsdefwGif xyfrHí taMumif;Mum;ygOD;}}[krSmMum;cJh\/ ½kyftqif;ysufcsdefwGifokomefapmifhumVDtaMumif; Mum;avvQif a½Ttqif;uJhodkU0g0if;aomtom;ta&wkdYonf EGm;raysmuftqif;uJhodkY jzpfukef\/ ajcvufwkdYusdK;ukef\/ auG;aumufukef\/ ezl;jyifESifh&ifom;aygifom;wkdY onfvnf;r&Sdukefawmh/ ]]aMomf...rdef;rysdKonf ,ckyifa&Ttqif;uJhodkY0g0if;bd\/ ,ck csufcsif;yif tom;ta&wkdYonf azmufjyefysufpD;ukef\/ ukefjcif; ysufjcif;odkYa&muf ukef\/ ½kyf emrf"r®ocFg&wkdUonf tNrJr&Sd qif;&Jbdí tESpfr&Sdygwum;}}[k0dyóem óPfjzifh½I&m y#dorÇd'gav;yg;ESifhwuG&[EÅmtjzpfokdYa&mufav\/

r[mumVrax&fum; arm[tarSmif\vGwf&m? b0wnf;[laomnOfh? avmu wnf;[laomnOfh? oHo&mwnf;[laomnOfhrS edAÁmefwnf;[laomaeYokdYa&mufcJhNyDjzpf onf/ nDjzpfolplVumVrax&fonf aemifaomtcg r,m;a[mif;rsm;\ zsm;a,mif;rI aMumifhvlYb0odkYjyefvnfa&muf&SdoGm;av\/ plVumVum; rcdkifrmaomopfyifESifhwl \/ avjyif;wkdufuNydKvJ\/ r[mumVum;ckdifcefUaomausmufawmifESifhwl\/ av jyif;rkefwkdif;vmaomfvnf; rNydKvJay/ þum;nDaemifESpfa,muf\ jcm;em;csufjzpf\/

r[mumVrax&f&[EÅmjzpf&jcif;\ taMumif;&if;onf okomef"kwifaqmuf wnfí tavmif;aumifü tokbur®|mef;pD;jzef;aomaMumifhjzpf\/ xkdYaMumifh okomef"kwifaqmif&[ef;wkdYonf r[mumVrax&fuJhokdYusifhaqmif&rnfjzpfygonf/

4; 4; 5/ / okomef"kwif aqmifyk*¾dKvfokH;rsdK;

okomef"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf -

1/ Ouú|aomomedu = tjrwfpm;okomef"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf/ 2/ rZÑdraomomedu = tvwfpm;okomef"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf/ 3/ rk'kaomomedu =tnhHpm;okomef"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf

[líokH;rsdK;uGJjym;\/ xkdwGif -

1/ tjrwfpm;okomef"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf tavmif;aumifwkdYukd aeYpOfrD; oN*ØK[fjcif;/ tavmif;aumif\tykwfeHUrjywfxGufay:jcif;? aeYpOftokbvmícs aomaMumifh usef&pfaomaqGrsdK;wkdY\ idkkaMuG;oHwkdYukd rjywfMum;&jcif;[laom t*Fg okH;yg;ESifh jynfhpkHaomokomefüae&\/

2/ tvwfpm;okomef"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf txufazmfjyygt*FgokH;yg;wkdYwGif wpfyg;yg;ESifhjynfhpkHaomokomefü ae&\/

3/ tnHhpm;okomef"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf okomefvu©Pma&mufumrQjzpf aomokomefrsdK;ü aexdkifEkdif\/

4; 4; 6/ / okomef"kwif ysufpD;csdef

txufazmfjyygokomef"kwifaqmif&[ef;tm;vkH;onf okomefr[kwf&mt&yfü aexkdifrdaomcPü "kwifysuf\/

t*Fkwå&edum,faqmifrax&fwkdUurl rkd;aomuf,mrfü okomefrSzJcGgjcif;iSgoifh \[kqkdaomaMumifh okomefodkYroGm;aeYü"kwifysuf\ [kqdkMuukef\/ þü]]rdk;aomuf ,mrfüokomefrSzJcGgjcif;oifh\}}[laom pum;udkaxmufí okomef"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf wdkYonf t½kPfwufonfhwkdifatmifokomefüae&rnf? t½kPfwufrSomvQifokomef t&yfrS zJcGg&rnf/ tu,fí t½kPfrwufao;bJ okomefrSxGufcGgrdvQif "kwifysuf Ekdifygonf/

4; 4; 7/ /okomef"kwif aqmufwnf&jcif;\ tusdK;tmedoifrsm;

okomef"kwifaqmufwnfjcif;aMumifh atmufygtusdK;tmedoifrsm;udk &&SdEkdifyg onf/ 4if;wkdYum; -

  1. aojcif;üjzpfaom owdudk tzefzef&Ekdifjcif;/
  2. rarhravsmh aeavh&Sdoljzpfjcif;/
  3. tokbedrdwfudk &jcif;/
  4. umr&m*udk y,fazsmufEdkifjcif;/
  5. cE¨mukd,f\ tokboabmudk tNrJrjywfjrifawGY&jcif;/
  6. oHa0*óPf&ihfoefjcif;/
  7. usef;rmjcif;udk pGJíjzpfaom tma&m*srmefponfudk y,fazsmufEkdifjcif;/
  8. ab;tEÅ&m,ftoG,foG,fudk oD;cHEkdifjcif;/
  9. bDvl;obufwdkY\ av;pm;rIudk cH&jcif;/
  10. tydpäwmpaom*kPfwkddYtm;avsmfaomtoufarG;rI&Sdjcif;wkdYjzpfygonf/

4; 4; 8/ / wkdufwGef;csuf

okomef"kwifaqmufwnfjcif;onf r&PmEkówdbm0emudk tpOftNrJyGg; rsm;umaeavh&SdaomaMumifh aojcif;w&m;udk raMumufr½GUH&ifqkdif &JaomowådESifhjynfhpkH Ekdif\/ ]]tyÜrma'g trwH y'H yrma'g rpöKaemy'H}} paoma'oemESifhtnD usifhokH; aexkdifonfrnfaomaMumifh aojcif;uif;&medAÁmefudk w'*FtwGif;ü&&SdEkdif\/ okomefwpjyifüaexkdifonfhtwGuf tavmif;aumifrsm;pGmudk rsuf0g;xifxifawGYjrif &í umr*kPf pkHrufwPSm&r®uf\tvkdokdY vkdufygvkdaom pdwf,kwfrmrsm;udk y,f&Sm; Ekdif\/ tavmif;aumifrsm;ukd tNrJrjywfjrifawGUae&onfhtwGuf oHa0óPf&ifhoef um axmifvTm;wwfaomrmefrmeudk y,fEkdif\/ jrefrmpum;ykHü ]]raovkdaomf okomefokdYememoGm;? r&PówdyGm;}}[laom pum;ESifh ]]usm;tkdvQif½Gmem;uyfrS0onf? w&m;vkdvQif romem;uyfrS&onf}} [laom pum;rsm;&Sdojzifh w&m;xl;udktvdk&Sdaomyk*¾dKvfonf okomef"kwifudkaqmufwnf usifhokH;&m\/

okomef"kwiftaMumif;NyD;\/


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