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ywåykdPf"kwif taMumif;


3; 4; 1/ / ywåykdPf"kwif t"dyÜg,ff

ESpfckajrmufaomcGufukdy,fí wpfckwnf;aomcGufü wnfaomqGrf;ukd ywåyd@[kac:\/

xkdwpfckwnf;aomcGufüwnfaomqGrf;ukd ,lípm;jcif;tavh&Sdaom&[ef;onf ywå[email protected] = ywåykdPf"kwifaqmif&[ef;rnf\/

xkdwpfckwnf;aomcGufüwnfaomqGrf;ukd ,lípm;jcif;tavh&Sdaom &[ef; awmf\tusifhodu©müaqmufwnfaMumif;jzpfaom taMumif;t*Fgorm'ge apwem onf ywå[email protected]*F = ywåykdPf"kwifrnf/ xkdwpfckwnf;aomcGufüwnfaomqGrf;ukd ,lípm;jcif;tavh&Sdaom &[ef; awmf\tusifhodu©müaqmufwnfaMumif;jzpfaom taMumif;t*Fgorm'ge apwem onf ywå[email protected]*F = ywåykdPf"kwifrnf/

3; 4; 2/ / ywåykdPf"kwif aqmufwnfykH

ywåykdPf"kwifukd

]]'kwd,bmZeH y#ddu©dygrd? ywå[email protected]*ø orm'd,mrd}} [kygVdbmomoufouf jzifhvnf;aumif;? ESpfckajrmufaom pm;cGufukd y,fpGefYyg\/ wpfcGufwnf;ü&Sdaom pm;zG,fukdom ,lpm;avh&Sdaom&[ef;awmf\ taMumif;t*Fgapwemudk aqmufwnf yg\}} [kjrefrmbmompum;oufoufjzifhvnf;aumif; rdrdESpfouf&m bmompum; wpfrsdK;rsdK;jzifh ESpfoufovkd aqmufwnfusifhokH;Ekdifygonf/

3; 4; 3/ / ywåykdPf"kwif aqmif&[ef;wkdY vkdufemzG,f&mrsm;

txufygtwkdif; ywåydkPf"kwifukdaqmufwnfNyD;aom&[ef;awmfonf ,m*k aomufpOfü trJ? ig;paom [if;vsmrsm;&cJhaomf xkdtrJ? ig;paom[if;vsmwkdYukd ,m*kESifhtwla&mxnfhíaomufvQif ,m*konf pufqkwf½GH&SmzG,f jzpfoGm;Ekdif\/ xkdYaMumifh ,m*kukd tvsifaomufí trJ? ig;paom[if;vsmrsm;ukd aemufrSpm;Ekdif\/ okdUr[kwf trJ? ig;paom [if;vsmukdtvsifpm;í ,m*kukdaemufrSaomufEkdif\/ trSefpifppftm;jzifh tpm;taomufpm;&mü pufqkwf½GH&SmzG,frjzpfatmif pm;aomuf &efomvkd&if;jzpf\/ rdrdpm;rnfhtpm;tpmonf pufqkwf½GH&SmzG,fjzpfaeygu rnfolrQ pm;csifaomufcsifawmhrnfr[kwfay/ xkdYaMumifhpufqkwf½GH½SmzG,frjzpfatmif ,m*kukd jzpfap?trJçig;paom[if;vsmukdjzpfapwpfckckukdtvsifpm;&rnf[kqkd&jcif;jzpfygonf/

½GH&SmzG,frjzpfaom ysm;oumponfwkdYukdrl ,m*kxJxnfhí okH;aqmifEdkif\/ xkdokdY ysm;&nf? oum&nfpaom pm;p&m? aomufp&mrsm;ukd cH,l&mü rdrd0rf;yrmPukd csifhcsdefí oifh½kHomcH,l&rnf/ avmvkyÜwPSmjzifh pm;írukefatmif rcH,l&ay/

o&uf½GuftEk? wrm½GuftEkpaom wkdYp&m [if;½Gufpdrf;wkdYukdrl vufjzifh ukdifí pm;Ekdif\/ pm;aumif;\/ xkdokdYpm;jcif;aMumifh "kwifrysufay/ okdYaomf vufESifhukdifí bkOf;ay;jcif;onf orPom½kyÜrjzpfaomaMumifh oydwfxJüxnfh íokH;aqmifjcif;onfom ykdíoifhavQmfrnf[k ,lqrdygonf/

þütxl;owdjyK&efrSm ESpfckajrmufaomcGufukd y,fNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh wpfyg; wpfjcm;aom opf½GuftEkponfwkdYudkvnf; aemufxyf,lírpm;oifhawmhay/ ,lípm;rdvQif "kwifysufygonf/

o&ufoD;? iSufaysmoD;ponfukd pm;aomtcgü xkdo&ufoD;? iSufaysm oD;ponfwkdYukd qGrf;rpm;cif toifhjyKvkyfxm;NyD;aemuf oydwfxJxnfhíxm;&rnf/ qGrf;pm;NyD;rSjzpfap? qGrf;rpm;cifjzpfap xkdo&ufoD;? iSufaysmoD;ponfwkdYukd wpfxkdifwnf;pm;Ekdif\/ þum; ywåykdPf"kwifaqmif&[ef;wkdY vkdufemusifhBuHzG,f &mrsm;yifjzpfygonf/

3; 4; 4/ / ywåykdPf"kwif aqmifyk*¾dKvfokH;rsdK;

ywåykdPf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf-

1/ Ouú|ywå[email protected] = tjrwfpm;ywåykdPf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf/ 2/ rZÑdrywå[email protected] = tvwfpm;ywåykdPf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf/ 3/ rk'kywå[email protected] = tnHhpm;ywåykdPf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf[lí okH;rsdK; uGJjym; \/

xkdokH;rsdK;wkdUwGif-

1/ tjrwfpm;ywåykdPf"kwifaqmifOuú|fyk*¾dKvfonf BuHpkwfaomtcgrS wpfyg; aomtcgü ig;½dk;? pyg;vkH;paomtrIdufrsm;ukd ESpfckajrmufaomcGufü xnfhírpGefYypf aumif;acs/

þae&mü]]ESpfckajrmufaomcGuf0,f ig;½dk;? trJ½dk;ponfukd xnfhírpGefYypf aumif;}}[laompum;ukd axmufvQif ]]pGefYypfypönf;rsm;xnfh&ef axG;cHponfudkvnf; qGrf;pm;onfhtcgrxm;aumif;}}[laomoabmoufa&mufae\/ trSefpifppftm;jzifh axG;cHrxm;&onfum;r[kwf? xm;aumif;\/ ig;½kd; trJ½kd; pyg;vkH;ponfwkdYukd 0g;umrsdKcsí&vQifrsdKcs&\/ rsdKcsír&vQif vufjzifh,lí axG;cHürpGefYypf&? yg;pyf jzifhom axG;xkwfíaxG;cHüvnf;aumif;? cGufwpfckcküvnf;aumif;? ajrBuD;ay:ü vnf;aumif;pGefYypf&rnf/ þokdYjyKvkyfusifhokH;vQif axG;cHxm;aumif;\[krSwf& ygrnf/

BuHpkwfaomtcgü rpkwfrD BuHtcGefrsm;udk cGgí pGefYypfaumif;\/ pkwfNyD;aom BuHzwfrsm;ukdrl rsdKcsjcif;iSgrpGrf;Ekdif&um; vufjzifh,lí axG;cHponfüpGefYypfaumif;yg onf/

tjrwfpm;ywåykdPf"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf qGrf;pm;aepOf oydwfxJ&Sd t½kd;ESifh pyg;vkH;paom trIdufrsm;ukd rpm;cifa½G;aumufí rpGefYypf&? ra½G;cs,fbJom pm; &rnf/ raumif;onfudky,fí aumif;onfht&mukdompm;ygu aumif;Ekd;&m&mukdom pm;vdkaom &owPSmjzpfEkdif\/ xkdYaMumifhoydwfxJ&SdorQ t½kd;? pyg;vkH;ponfukd ra½G;cs,fbJomvQif pm;&rnf[kqkd&jcif;jzpfygonf/ t½kd;ponfukd 0g;rsdKí rpm;Ekdif ygrS txufygtwkdif;axG;cHponfüaxG;xkwfípGefYypf&rnfjzpfygonf/

xkdYjyiftjrwfpm;ywåykdPf"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf xrif;cJ? ig;? trJ? rkefYp onfwkdYukdvnf;cGJzJhírpm;aumif;? cGJzJhípm;pm;u tjrwfpm;"kkwifaqmifr[kwfawmh ay/ xkdYaMumifh ig;? trJponfwkdYukd qGrf;rpm;cif BudKwifí cGJzJhxm;oifhygonf/ xkdokdYcGJzJhxm;jcif;aMumifh"kwifrysufEkdifay/ pm;aewkef;? pm;aeqJ tckdufrSmom cGJzJhí rpm;&jcif;jzpfygonf/

þywåykdPf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfokH;rsdK;ESifhywfoufí r[m0dok'¨g½kHq&mawmf bk&m;BuD;a&;om;aom y&rwo½lyab'eDusrf;ü-

]]rk'kbdaEé 'aEÅ[dyd? {u[awe rZÑdarm/ e bdaEé Ouúa|m udOöd? 0dem OpäKH e q¥a,/

rk'kac: tnhHpm;"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf oGm;wkdYjzifh rkHYçxrif;cJç ig;çtrJp onfukd ukdufzJhípm;\/ rZÑdrac:tvwfpm;"kwif aqmifyk*¾dKvfonf vufwpfzufwnf;jzifh zJhípm;\/ Ouú|ac: tjrwfpm;"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf rkYHç xrif;cJç ig;ç trJ ponfhwpfpkHwpfckukdrQ ukdufjzwfzJhírpm;&m? BuHzwfrSwyg;aom ig;t½kd;? trdIuf ponfukd oydwfrSq,fí rpGefYy,f&m? cHwGif;okdYa&mufrS yg;apmifwpfzufrS axG;vsuf pGefYypf&rnf}} [k azmfjyxm;onfukdawGY&ygonf/

txufygy&rwo½lyab'eDusrf;vmpum;&yfukd axmufí tjrwfpm;ywåykdPf "kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf rkYHç xrif;cJçig;çtrJ wpfpkHwpfckukdrQ ukdufzJhírpm;&aMumif;xif &Sm;ygonf/

tcsdKUq&mwkdYu xkdrkYHç xrif;cJç ig;ç trJponfwkdYudka&marTípm;rS tjrwfpm; "kwifaqmifyk*¾Kdvfjzpfonf[kqkdMu\/ xkdokdYa&marTí pm;ygu tpmtm[m&onf pufqkwf½GH&SmzG,ftjzpfokdYa&mufoGm;\/ pufqkwf½GH&SmzG,fjzpfaom tpmtm[m&ukd rnfolurQ pm;vkdMurnfr[kwfay/ jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sifuvnf; tpmtm[m&ukd pm;&mü oefYoefY&Sif;&Sif;pm;jcif;ukdom ESpfoufjrwfEkd;awmf rlygonf/ aocd,ü½GH&SmzG,fjyKí pm;jcif;ukd rsm;pGmuJh&JUawmfrlygonf/ xkdYaMumifh þ"kwifukdusifh&mü oydwfxJ&Sd tpm;tpmukd ½GH&Sm zG,frjzpfatmifjyKvkyfí pm;&rnfomjzpfygonf/

2/ tvwfpm;ywåykdPf"kwifaqmifrZÑdryk*¾dKvfonf vufwpfzufjzifh ig;ç trJp onfukd cGJzJhípm;aumif;\/ þyk*¾dKvfukd [wa,m*D = vufESifhpyf,SOfaomyk*¾dKvf[k ac:ygonf/

3/ tnHhpm;ywåykdPf"kwifaqmifrk'kyk*¾dKvfonf oydwfüxnfhxm;orQaom cJbG,fabmZOftm;vkH;wkdYukd vufjzifhzJhí aomfvnf;aumif;? oGm;jzifhukdufzJhíaomf vnf;aumif; cGJzJhípm;Ekdif\/ þyk*¾dKvfukd ywåa,m*D = oydwfESifhpyf,SOfaom yk*¾dKvf [kac:qkdygonf/ þum;ywåykdPf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfokH;rsdK;wkdY\ xl;jcm;csufrsm; yifjzpfygonf/

3; 4; 5/ / ywåykdPf"kwif ysufpD;jcif;

ywåykdPf"kwifaqmufwnfMuukefaom txufazmfjyygyk*¾dKvftm;vkH;wkdYonf ESpfckajrmufaomcGufukd vufcHom,maomcPü ywåykdPf"kwifysufygonf/ okH;ck ajrmufaomcGufüum; qkdbG,f&mr&Sdacs/ þywåykdPf"kwifysufpD;jcif;ü tcsdKUq&mwkdYu cGuftrsm;BuD;tuyfcHvQifvnf; aumif;? qGrf;ponfwkdYudkrpm;rD jyifíoydwftwGif;okdYxnfhvQifvnf;aumif; rpm;rD uyif"kwifysufonf[kqkdMuygonf/

tcsdKUq&mwkdYum; cGufwpfckwnf;ü ESpfBudrfjyefpm;vQifyif ESpfckajrmufcGuf jzpfí "kwifysufonf[kqkdMuygonf/

tcsdKUq&mwkdYum;cHwGif;odkYa&muforQ t½dk;ponfwdkYukd wjznf;jznf;0g;rsdK &rnf/ rrsdKbJaxG;vQif"kwifysufonf[k twåudvrxusifhenf;jzifh t,lonf;pGmqkd Muygonf/

q&mjrwfwkdY\ t,ltqrsm;ukd wifjy&vQif cH,laomtcg cGufrsm;aomfvnf; tjypfr&Sd? pm;aomtcgrSmom wpfcGufwnf;pm;&rnf/ xkdYaMumifh cGuftrsm;BuD; tuyfcHvQifvnf;"kwifrysufEdkif[krSwf,l&rnf/

t|uxmü rdrd\0rf;yrmPESifh oifh½kHkomcH,l&rnf[kqkdaomaMumifh rpm;rD ukd,fwkdifjyifxnfhonfukdtjypfrqkdoifhay/ xkdYaMumifh rpm;rD qGrf;ponfukd jyifxnfh vQifvnf; "kwifrysufEkdif[komrSwf&ygrnf/

{umoeduf"kwifukdraqmufwnfbJ þywåydkPf"kwifukdom aqmufwnfí usifholjzpfvQif ae&ma½GUajymif;í txyfxyfpm;aomfvnf; tjypfr&Sd? xkdokdYpm;jcif; aMumifhvnf;"kwifrysufEkdifyg? pifppftm;jzifh pm;onfhcGufom rajymif;&jcif; jzpfygonf/ 0dok'¨dr*ft|uxmü "kwifysufykHukdjy&m0,f-

]]£aroH ye wdPÖrÜd 'kwd,bmZeH om'dwu©aP "kw*ø bdZÆwd}} ]]þrk'k? rZÑdr? Ouú|"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfokH;a,mufwkdYonf ESpfckajrmufaompm; cGufukd om,mpm;aomufaomcPü ywåykdPf"kwifysufonf}}

[kjyqkdxm;ygonf/

þtxufyg 0dok'¨dr*ft|uxmpum;ukdaxmufí pm;onfhcGufukd rajymif;bJ wpfcGufwnf;üompm;vQif ukef,if;xnfh,if;ç 0,if;x,if;ç qmqmavmifavmif &Sd,if; xkdifíjyefpm;,if;jzifh txyfxyfyifpm;aumif;\/ Oykofraqmufwnfaom aeUjzifhrlaeYtcgüpm;pm;? nOfhtcgüpm;pm; cGufrajymif;bJpm;vQiftxyfxyfyif pm; aumif;\/ "kwifrysufEkdifay/ xkdYaMumifhcGuffwpfckwnf;ü ESpfBudrfjyefpm;vQifvnf; "kwifrysufEkdif[kom rSwfom;&ygrnf/ þum; ywåykdPf"kwifysufykHESifh pyfvsOf;í odrSwfzG,f&mrsm;yifjzpfygonf/

3; 4; 6/ / ywåydkPf"kwif aqmufwnf&jcif;\tusdK;tmedoifrsm;

ywåykdPf"kwifudkaqmufwnfusifhokH;jcif;jzifh atmufazmfjyygtusdK; tmedoif rsm;ukd &&SdEdkifygonf/ 4if;wkdYrSm-

1/ t&omtrsdK;rsdK;ü wyfrufrI wPSmukd y,fEkdifjcif;/ 2/ cGuftoD;oD;&Sd t&omtrsdK;rsdK;vkdvm;rIukd y,fEkdifjcif;/ 3/ tpmtm[m&ü jrwfpGmbk&m;&SifcGifhjyKawmfrlaom tusdK;rQukdom Munfh½I arQmfvifhavh&Sdjcif;/ 4/ tykdtvQH yk*H cGufa,mufponfwkdUukdaqmifjcif;ü jzpfaom qif;&Jyifyef; rIrSuif;vGwf&jcif;/ 5/ tjcm;cGufwkdYü ysHUvGifhp&mtm½kHr&Sdí qGrf;pm;pOfü orm"dukdjzpfapjcif;/ 6/ tydpäwmpaom*kPfwkdYtm;avsmfaomtoufarG;rI&Sdjcif;wkdYjzpfygonf/

3; 4; 7/ / {umoeduf? ywåydkPf"kwifESpfyg;ukd vlyk*¾dKvfrsm;yif aqmufwnfusifhokH;Ekdifjcif;taMumif;

þ{umoeduf"kwif? ywåydkPf"kwifESpfyg;ukd&[ef;omraPwkdYonfomaqmuf wnfusifhokH;EkdifMuonfr[kwf? vlyk*¾dKvfrsm;yif aqmufwnfusifhokH;EkdifaMumif; 0dok'¨d r*ft|uxmpum;t& od&ygonf/ xkdtaMumif;ukd 0dok'¨dr*ft|uxmü- ]]Oygou OygodumeH ye {umoedu*øç ywå[email protected]*FEÅd £rmed a'G ywd½lyged ap0 ouúmp y&dbkOÆdwkEÅd a'G "kw*Fged}}

]]Oyoum OygodumrwkdYtm; {umoeduf"kwif? ywåydkPf"kwifESpfyg;wkdYonf avsmufvnf;avsmufywfukef\/ okH;aqmifusifhokH;tm;xkwfjcif;iSgvnf; wwfvnf; wwfEkdifukef\}}[kzGifhqkdxm;ygonf/

xkdYjyiff 'ouedygwfZmwfawmfü tavmif;awmfuPS&aohonf tm&nuif "kwifç½ku©rl"kwifçtaAÇmumodu"kwifç edoZÆd"kwifpaom"kwifwkdYukd aqmufwnf aMumif;awGY&Sd&ygonf/

Zmwut|uxmü]]bk&m;avmif;okar"monfvnf; awmxGufí &aoh&[ef; jyKNyD;onfhaemufü 0doBuKHewfom;zefqif;ay;aom opf½Gufrkd;ausmif;Z&yfudky,fum opfyif&if;okdY uyfawmfrl\/ xkdYaemufavsmif;pufjcif;£&d,mykxfukdy,fum xkdifjcif;? &yfjcif;? pBuøoGm;jcif;[laom£&d,mykxfokH;yg;jzifh ur®|mef;w&m;udk tjyif;txef tm;xkwfaomaMumifh ckepf&uftwGif;rSmyif tbdnmOfig;yg;? ormywf&Spfyg;wkdYudk &&Sdawmfrl\}} [k azmfjyxm;onfukd awGU&ygonf/

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txufyg0dok'¨dr*ft|uxm? Zmwut|uxmvmpum;rsm;t& "kwiftusifh wkdUukd &[ef;omraPrsm;omru vlOygoum? Oygodumrrsm;vnf; aqmufwnf usifhokH;EkdifaMumif;od&Sd&ygonf/ pifppftm;jzifh "kwiftusifh[lonfrSm &[ef; omraPrsm;twGuf oD;oefYusihfokH;&efynwfxm;aom 0denf;awmfr[kwf? vlom; tm;vkH; vdkufemusifhokH;Ekdif&efa[mMum;xm;aom okwåefenf;jzpf&um; tjypfr&Sdjcif; vu©Pm? aumif;aomtudsK;ukd ay;jcif;vu©Pm&Sd\/ xkdYaMumifh &[ef;omraPrsm; omru vlOygoum Oygodumrsm;vnf; usifhokH;aqmuf wnfEkdifygonf/ xkd"kwif tusifhukdusifhokH;vQif t,kwfqkH; 0goemaumif;wpfckxkHjcif;[laom tusdK;&rnf rSmum;aocsmvSygonf/ xkdYaMumifh Ak'¨bmomor®m t,l&SdMuonfhyk*¾dKvfrSeforQwkdY onf awGa0jcif;? tvkdqkd;&Sdjcif;? ½l;oGyfjcif;wkdYaMumifh "kwifaqmufwnfusifh okH;jcif;ukdrjzpfapbJ þ"kwiftusifhonf bk&m;&SifcsD;rGrf; awmfrltyfaomtusifhjzpf onf[lívnf;aumif;? tvkdenf;jcif;ponfukd trSDjyKívnf;aumif; usifhBuHtm; xkwfjcif;trIukd jyK&rnfjzpfygonf/

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