Home
dhammadana.org; direct link to the beginning of the text
"r®'ge á oHC á "kwif á {umoeduf
Next page Bottom of page Previous page

{umoeduf"kwif taMumif;


3; 3; 1/ / {umoeduf"kwift"dyÜg,f

wpfxkdifwnf;ü pm;jcif;onf {umoernf\/ wpfxkdifwnf;ü pm;jcif;tavh &Sdaom&[ef;onf{umoedurnf\/ xkdwpfxkdifwnf;ü pm;avh&Sdaom&[ef;\ tusifh odu©mü aqmufwnfaMumif;jzpfaom taMumif;t*Fgorm'geapwemonf {um oedu*F = {umoeduf"kwifrnf\/

3; 3; 2/ / {umoeduf"kwif aqmufwnfykH

{umoeduf"kwifukd-

]]ememoeabmZeH y#du©dygrd? {umoedu*ø orm"d,mrd}} [kygVdbmompum; oufoufjzifhvnf;aumif;? ]]ae&mrsm;pGmü pm;jcif;ukd y,fyg\/ wpfxkdifwnf;üom pm;avh&Sdaom&[ef;\ taMumif;t*Fgapwemukd aqmufwnfyg\}}[kjrefrmbmom pum;oufoufjzifhvnf;aumif; rdrdESpfouf&mbmompum;wpfrsdK;rsdK;jzifh aqmuf wnfusifhokH;Ekdifygonf/

3; 3; 3/ / {umoeduf"kwif aqmif&[ef;\ tapmifh(2)yg;

txufygtwkdif;{umoeduf"kwifukdaqmufwnfNyD;aom&[ef;tm; rdrdaqmuf wnfxm;aom"kwifrysufEkdif&ef

(u) pm;qJae&mu apmifha&Smufjcif;/ ( c) pm;qJabmZOfu apmifha&Smufjcif;[lí tapmifh(2)yg;&Sdonfukd awGU&\/

xkdwGif {umoeduf"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf qGrf;pm;Z&yfü ae&m,lí xkdifonf&Sdaomf rax&fBuD;wdkY\ ae&mürxkdifrlí ]]þae&monf ightm;oifhawmf avQmufywf\}} [kcefYrSef;í rddrdESifhoifhawmfaomae&mukdrSwfom;um xkdif&rnfjzpf\/ tb,fhaMumifh qkdaomf ae&mukdrrSwfom;bJ xkdifygu qGrf;pm;í rNyD;ao;rD q&mjzpfap? OyZÑm,f jzpfap MuGvmvQifae&mrSxíay;&jcif;? 0wfjyK&jcif;udpöwkdYaMumifh "kwifysufEkdifaom aMumifhjzpfygonf/ rdrdESifhoifhawmfaomae&mukd rSwfom;í xkdifygu q&m? OyZÑm,f wkdYMuGvmaomfvnf; ae&may;&jcif;? 0wfjyK&jcif; udpörsm;ukdrjyKvkyfbJ qGrf;ukdom pdwfat;csrf;ompGmbkOf;ay;okH;aqmifEkdif\/rSef\/ {umoeduf"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf qGrf;pm;í rNyD;rcsif;ae&mrSxí roGm;&ay/ ae&mrSxí oGm;rdvQifvnf; aemufxyf qGrf;ukdpm;cGifhr&Sdacs/ ae&majymif;NyD;rSpm;vQif "kwifysufavawmh\/ qGrf;pm; jcif;udpöNyD;rSomvQif q&mOyZÑm,fwkdYukd0wfjyK&rnfjzpfygonf/ þuJhokdY ae&mrSrx rlí rdrdxkdifNyD;aomae&müyifqufvufaexkdifí pm;aomufjcif;ukd {umoeduf"kwif aqmif&[ef;tm;pm;qJae&mu apmifha&Smufjcif;[kac:ygonf/

qGrf;ukdpm;aeqJr[kwfbJ qGrf;pm;&eftvdkYiSg xkdifonfhtcsdefü q&m? OyZÑm,f wkdY MuGvmvQif qGrf;abmZOfukdrpm;ao;bJ xkdif&mrSxí q&m? OyZÑm,fwkdYtm; 0wfjyKEdkif\/ þonfukdyif {umoeduf"kwifaqmif&[ef;tm; abmZOfuapmifh a&Smufjcif;[k ac:qkdjcif;jzpfygonf/

þütxl;rSwf&efrSm {umoeduf"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf qGrf;pm;aepOf ae&mrS xí q&m? OyZÑm,fwkkdYtm;0wfjyKvQif qGrf;pm;aeqJ jzpfaomaMumifh qGrf;abmZOf uvnf; rapmifha&SmufEkdif? ae&mrSxrdaomaMumifh ae&muvnf; "kwifrysufatmif rapmifha&SmufEkdif? xkdYaMumifh ae&mrSxNyD;vQif qGrf;udkjyefrpm;oifhay/ ae&mrSxNyD; aemufrS qGrf;ukdpm;rdvQif{umoeduf"kwifysufygonf/

3; 3; 4/ / {umoeduf"kwif aqmifyk*¾KdvfokH;rsdK;

{umoeduf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf-

1/ Ouú|{umoedu = tjrwfpm;{umoeduf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf 2/ rZÑdr{umoedu = tvwfpm;{umoeduf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf 3/ rk'k{umoedu = tnhHpm;{umoeduf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf

[lí okH;rsdK;uGJ jym;\/ xkdwGif-

1/ tjrwfpm;{umoeduf"kwifaqmifOuúXfyk*¾dKvfonf enf;onfjzpfap rsm; onfjzpfap ]]þabmZOfudk okH;aqmiftHh}}[k BuHpnfí vufudk oydwf? cGufponfü csrdvQif xkdrdrdvufcsrdaom abmZOfrS wyg;tjcm;aomabmZOfudk rcH,l rokH;aqmif aumif;ay/ odkYaomf ]]þrax&fonf wpfpkHwpfckudkrQ rbkOf;ay;&ao;}}[kxifrSwfí tvkyftauR; 'g,umwkdYu axmywfponfudk aq;tvkdYiSguyfvmvQif tvSLcHí okH; aqmifaumif;\/ tm[m&tusdK;twGuf uyfvSLvQifrl vufrcHaumif;ay/ vufcH vQif "kwifysufygonf/

2/ tvwfpm; {umoeduf"kwifaqmif rZÑdryk*¾dKvfonf oydwfxJü qGrf;rukef ao;orQ tjcm;aomabmZOfudk cH,lokH;aqmifaumif;\/ ,if;udk abmZey&d,EÅdu = abmZOfukefqkH;jcif;vQif tqkH;½Sdaom yk*¾Kdvf[kac:\/

3/ tnHhpm; {umoeduf"kwifaqmif rk'kyk*¾dKvfonf oydwfxJü qGrf;ukefaomf vnf;ae&mrS rxao;vQif tjcm;aomabmZOfudk cH,lokH;aqmifcGifh½Sd\/ þyk*¾dKvfudk tmoey&d,EÅdu= ae&mrSxjcif;vQif tqkH;½Sdaomyk*¾dKvf[kvnf;aumif;? oydwfaq; a&udkr,lrcsif; tjcm;aomabmZOfudk cH,lokH;aqmifcGifh½SdaomaMumifh O'uy&d,EÅdu= oydwfaq;a&,ljcif;vQif tqkH;½Sdaomyk*¾dKvf[kvnf;aumif;ac:qkdygonf/

3; 3; 5/ / {umoeduf"kwif ysufpD;jcif;

txufazmfjyyg {umoeduf"kwifaqmif yk*¾dKvfokH;yg;wkdUonf ae&mrsm;pGmü ajymif;a½TUí abmZOfudkpm;okH;aomcPüyif {umoeduf"kwif ysufpD;ygonf/

þae&mü *dvme[laomtaMumif;aMumifh aevGJaomtcgponfü aq;bkOf; ay;vQif "kwifrysufEkdif? ]]*dvmeyk*¾dKvfbJ}} [k BuHpnfí EGm;EkdY? aumfzD paomtm[m& jzpfapaomt&nfrsm;udk bkOf;ay;vQif "kwifysufygonf/ *dvmeyifjzpfaomfvnf; {umoeduf"kwifaqmufwnfygu xkdEGm;EkdY? aumfzDponfwkdYudkvnf; wpfxkdifwnf; wpfae&mwnf;üom bkOf;ay;okH;aqmif&rnf/ odkYaomf naecsrf;tcgüum; xkdEGm;EkdY? aumfzDrsm;udk rokH;aqmifaumif;ay/ okH;aqmifvQif ygpdwftmywfoifhygonf/ t,kwfqkH;tm;jzifh rnfonfhtm[m&yifjzpfap &owPSmudktvkdvkdufí taMumif; trsdK;rsdK;jyum bkOf;ay;okH;aqmifvQif "kwifysufonf[krSwf&ygrnf/

xkdYjyif ae&mrSxNyD;aemuf zsm;emjcif; qmavmifjcif; taMumif;r½SdvQif tm[m&udpötwGuf uGrf;aq;rQyifrtyfay/ axmywfwifvJ ponfwkdYum; omíyif tm[m&jzpfaomaMumifh qkdzG,f&mr½Sd? "kwifudkysufpD;apEkdif\[kq&mjrwffwkdYrdefY qkdaMumif; 0dok'¨dr*ft&omusrf;ü a&;om;xm;onfudkawGY&ygonf/ þum; {umoeduf"kwifysufpD;ykHESifhywfoufí odrSwfzG,f&mrsm;yifjzpfygonf/

3; 3; 6/ / {umoeduf"kwif aqmifjcif;\ tusdK;tmedoifrsm;

{umoeduf"kwifudk aqmufwnfusifhokH;jcif;jzifh atmufüazmf jyrnfh tusdK; tmedoifrsm;udk &½SdEkdifygonf/ 4if;wkdYrSm-

1/ tema&m*guif;½Sif;&jcif;/ 2/ udk,fpdwfqif;&Jjcif;rS uif;jcif;/ 3/ ayghyg;vQifjrefpGmxEkdifjcif;/ 4/ cGeftm;AvESifhjynfhpkHjcif;/ 5/ csrf;ompGmae&jcif;/ 6/ twd&dwf0denf;uHrjyKbJ pm;jcif;aMumifh jzpfEkdifaomtmywfrsm;roifhjcif;/ 7/ &owPSmukd y,fazsmufEkdifjcif;/ 8/ tydpäwmpaom *kPfwkdYYtm;avQmfaom toufarG;rI½Sdjcif;wkdYjzpfygonf/

3; 3; 7/ / aqmufwnfapcsif {umoeduf"kwif

wpfae&mwnf;wGif wpfxkdifwnf;bkOf;ay;okH;aqmifjcif;ü arGUavsmfaom &[ef;tm; qGrf;abmZOfukdtBudrfBudrfpm;jcif;aMumifhjzpfEkdifaom tema&m*gwkdYrESdyf pufEkdif/ t&omü rufarmaom&owPSmudk y,fazsmufEkdifonfjzpfí rdrdjyKoifh jyKxkdufaom &[ef;udpörSeforQudk jynfhpkHpGmjznfhusifhEkdif\/ {umoeduf"kwif tusifhonf csrf;ompGmae&jcif;\taMumif;vnf;jzpf\/ wPSmudavomw&m;qkd; rsm;udkvnf;acgif;yg;apwwf\/ xkdYaMumifh pifMu,faomtusifhjrwfudk usifhokH;jcif;ü arGYavsmfaysmfydkufESpfNcdKufavh½Sdaom&[ef;wkdYonf olawmfoljrwfwkdYom rSD0Jtyfaom {umoeduf"kwiftusifhudk usifhokH;aqmufwnfMuukef&m\/

{umoeduf"kwifNyD;\/


Next page Top of page Previous page Home Search

pwdkif a&G;jcif;

þ0uf(bf)pdkufyHkpHudk BudKuf&m a&G;cs,f zwf½SLEdkdifygonf/



þpmrsufESm; taMumif;

jyKpkol/ t&Sifa'0dE´

&ufpGJ/ 2001

aESmufqHk; jyif;jcif;/ 2005ckESpf (6)v (29)&uf