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"r®'ge á oHC á "kwif á oy'gepm&du
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oy'gepm&du"kwif taMumif;


3; 2; 1/ / oy'gepm&du"kwif t"dyÜg,f

oy'gepm&du[laomyk'fukd0dok'¨dr*ft|uxmü'geçty'geçoy'geç oy'ge pm&du[lí o'´genf;tm;jzifh cGJjyí t"dyÜg,fzGifh qkdxm;onfukdawGU&\/ xkdwGif tdrftpOfukdjzwfausmfjcif;udk 'ge[kac:\/ tdrftpOfukdrausmfjcif; (0g) tdrfpOf rjywfjcif;onf ty'gernf\/ tdrftpOfudkrjzwfausmfbJ tdrftpOftwkdif;jzpfjcif; onf oy'gernf\/ tdrfpOfrjywfatmif vSnfhvnfjcif;onf oy'gepm&rnf\/ xkdtdrfpOfrjywfvSnfhvnfjcif;tavh&dSaom &[ef;awmfonf oy'gempm&durnf\ xkduJhokdY tdrftpOftwkdif;qGrf;cHavh&Sdaom &[ef;awmf\ tusifhodu©müaqmuf wnfaMumif;jzpfaom taMumif;t*Fgapwemonf oy'gepm&du*F = oy'gepm&du "kwifrnf\/

&Sif;vif;atmifzGifhqkd&ygrl jrifhjrwfaom&[ef;wkdYonf owå0gteEÅwkdYtay: nDrQaom arwåmbm0emukdyGm;rsm;Mu&\/ þae&mü rdrdtvkd&SdtyfaomtdrfokdYcsnf; uyfí qGrf;cHjcif;? rdrdrESpfoufaomtdrfokdY0ifa&mufí qGrf;rcHjcif;paom cGJjcm;rI pepfukd a&SmifMuOf&ef[kqkdvkdjcif;jzpfygonf/ okdYrSom ty'gejzpfEkdif\/ ckefausmf uGufausmfqGrf;&yfjcif;rsdK;ukd a&SmifMuOfí tdrftpOftwkdif; qGrf;&yfjcif;ukdomvQif oy'ge= tdrfpOfESifhwuG qGrf;&yfjcif;[kac:qdk&rnfjzpfygonf/ vlwef;pm;ra&G;? tqifhtwef;ra&G;? t,kwftvwftjrwfra&G;bJ awGY&SdorQaomtdrffwdkYokdY0ifí qGrf;cH jcif;onf oy'gepm&du"kwifrnf\ [krSwfom;xm;Ekdifygonf/

3; 2; 2/ / oy'gepm&du"kwif aqmufwnfykH

oy'gepm&du"kwifukd-

]]avmvkyÜpm&H y#du©dygrd? oy'gepm&du*ø orm"d,mrd}} [kygVdbmom oufoufjzifhvnf;aumif;? ]]avmvkyÜwPSmjziffh tdrfpOfausmfvTm;í qGrf;cHjcif; ukdy,fyg\/tdrfpOf twdkif;qGrf;cHavh&Sdaom&[ef;\ taMumif;t*Fg apwemukd aqmufwnfyg\}}[kjrefrm bmompum; oufoufjzifhvnf;aumif; rdrdESpf ouf&m bmompum; wpfrsdK;rsdK;jzifh ESpfoufovkd aqmufwnfusifhokH;Ekdifygonf/

3; 2; 3/ / oy'gepm&du"kwif aqmif&[ef;\usifhBuHvkdufemzG,f&mrsm;

txufygtwkdif; "kwifaqmufwnfNyD;aom &[ef;onf eHeufapmapmrSmyif qGrf;cHoGm;oifh\/ tb,fhaMumifhqkdaomf qGrf;cHapmapmoGm;ojzifh ab;&ef&Sdaom t&yf? pdwfrcsrf;omaomt&yfwkdUukdy,fum tjcm;ab;&efuif;í pdwfcsrf;omaom t&yfukd oGm;Ekdifap&efjzpfygonf/

qGrf;cHoGm;aomtcg &GmwHcg;ü qif jrif; uRJ EGm;paom ab;&efrsm;&Sd? r&Sdukd owdjyK&m\/ &Gmüjzpfap? vrf;üjzpfap ab;&ef&Sdygrl tjcm;&Gm? tjcm;vrf;rokdY a&SmifvTJí oGm;aumif;\/ tu,fí rdrdqGrf;cHoGm;aom&Gm? vrf;r? tdrfwHcg;rwkdYü wpfpkHwpfckukdrQr&cJhaomf xkdtdrfwHcg;? vrf;r&GmwkdYudk &Gmr[kwf[k trSwfonmjyKí oGm;vm&\/ tenf;i,fom&aomtdrfwHcg; vrf;rwkdYukdrl a&SmifvJGí roGm; aumif;ay/ ausmif;ü tvSLay;olrsm;ujzpfap? vrf;c&D;tMum;ü awGYolrsm;ujzpfap oydwfukd,líavmif;vSLcJhaomf cH,laumif;ygonf/ qGrf;vkH;0r&&SdcJhonfjzpfap? tenf;i,fom&&SdcJhonfjzpfapumrl &GmtpOfukdzsufíroGm;aumif;acs/

qGrf;pm;yifhzdwfvQifrlum; MuGoGm;jcif;vkH;0rjyKoifhay/ o'¨gw&m;tm;aumif; ojzifhBudK;pm;í oydwfudk,lumqGrf;vSL'gef;rIjyKygu cH,lcGifh½Sdygonf/ "kwifrysuf ay/ odkYaomf xkdqGrf;vSLvkdufaom½GmodkY aemufxyfwpfzefjyefí (arQmfvihfcsufjzifh) qGrf;cH r0ifoifhacs/ ½GmwGif;odkY0ifpOf rsm;pGmaomqGrf;[if;wkdYjzifh qGrf;avmif;vSLrI rsdK;udk BuHKBudKufygu oHCdu'gejzpfojzifh 0ifa&mufí tenf;i,frQyif rcH,loifhay/ tdrfpOftwkdif;om vSnfhvnfí qGrf;cH&rnfjzpfygonf/

þoy'gepm&du "kwifaqmif&[ef;onf c&D;oGm;pOftcgü qGrf;cHcsdefa&muf ygu rdrda&muf½Sdaom½GmudkausmfíroGm;bJ xkd½Gmü omqGrf;cH&rnf/ xkd½Gmü qGrf;vkH;0r&vQifjzpfap tenf;i,fom&vQifjzpfap qGrf;rjynfhpkHcJhaomf a½SUü½Sdaom ½GmpOfodkYqufí qGrf;cHEkdif\/ þum; oy'gepm&du"kwifaqmif&[ef;wkdY qGrf;cH 0wfü vkdufemusifhBuHzG,f&mrsm;yifjzpfygonf/

3; 2; 4/ / oy'gepm&du "kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfaqmifokH;rsKd;

þoy'ge pm&du"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonfatmufygtwkdif;okH;rsdK;uGJjym;\/

1/ Ouú|oy'gepm&du= tjrwfpm; oy'gepm&du"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf/ 2/ rZÑdroy'gepm&du= tvwfpm; oy'gepm&du"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvf/ 3/ rk'k oy'gepm&du= tnHhpm; oy'gepm&du"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfwdkYjzpfonf/

xkdyk*¾dKvfokH;rsdK;wkdYwGif-

1/ tjrwfpm;oy'gepm&du"kwifaqmifOuúXfyk*¾dKvfonf ra&mufao;aom a½SUtdrfrS xGufBudKíavmif;vSLaomqGrf;udkvnf;aumif;? aemuftdrfrS vkdufvmí avmif;vSLaomqGrf;udkvnf;aumif;? qGrfpm;Z&yfokdYaqmif,lí avmif;vSLaom qGrf;udkvnf;aumif; rcH,laumif;ay/ a&mufqJtdrfwHcg;rS xGufíavmif;vSLaom qGrf;udkom cH,l&rnfjzpfygonf/ xkdodkYa&mufqJtdrfwHcg;rS xGufí avmif;vSLaom qGrf;udkcH,l&mü rdrdoydwfudk qGrf;avmif;oltm;ay;í qGrf;udk cH,lEkdif\/ rSefygonf/ þ"kwifudk jznfhusifh&mü t½Sifr[muóyrax&fESifhwlaomyk*¾dKvfr½Sd/ xkdt½Sif r[muóyrax&fonf ,uúef;onfa,mifaqmifí qGrf;avmif;vSLaom odMum;rif; tm; vufrSoydwfudkay;í qGrf;cH,lbl;av\/ xkdYaMumifh rdrdoydwfukday;í qGrf;cH ,lEkdif\[k qkd&jcif;jzpfygonf/

2/ tvwfpm; oy'gepm&du"kwifaqmif rZÑdryk*¾dKvfonf ra&mufao;aom a½SUtdrfrS xGufBudKí avmif;vSLrnfhqGrf;udkvnf;aumif;? ausmfvGefcJhNyD;aom aemuf tdrfrSvkdufvmí avmif;vSLrnfhqGrf;udkvnf;aumif;? qGrf;pm;Z&yfodkUaqmif,lí avmif;vSLaomqGrf;udkvnf;aumif;? a&muffqJtdrfwHcg;ü avmif;vSLtyfaomqGrf; udkvnf;aumif; cH,lEkdif\/ odkYaomf xkdaeYtwGuf 'g,umwkdY zdwfrHxm;aomqGrf;udk apmifhqkdif;iHhvifhíum; raeaumif;ay/

3/ tnhHpm;oy'gepm&du"kwifaqmif rk'kyk*¾dKvfonfum; xkdaeYtwGuf 'g,umwkdY zdwfrHxm;aomqGrf;udk arQmfvifhapmifhqkdif;ívnf;aeEkdif\/ þum; oy'gepm&du "kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfokH;rsddK;wkdY\ xl;jcm;csufrsm;yifjzpfygonf/

3; 2; 5/ / oy'gepm&du"kwif ysufpD;jcif;

oy'gepm&du"kwifudkaqmifwnfMuukefaom txufazmfjyygyk*¾dKvfokH;rsdK;wkdY onf þrnfaom½Gm? þrnfaomvrf;? þrnfaomtdrfü qGrf;aumif;[if;aumif;rsm; &vdrfhrnf[laom arQmfvifhcsufavmvkyÜwPSmjzifh tdrfpOfudkausmfvGefí oGm;aomcPÜ oy'gepm&du"kwif ysufpD;ygonf/

3; 2; 6/ / oy'gepm&du"kwiff aqmif&jcif;\tusdK;tmedoifrsm;

þoy'gpm&du"kwifudk aqmufwnfjcif;jzifh atmufüazmfjyrnfh tusdK; tmedoifrsm;udk &½SdEkdifygonf/ 4if;wkdYum;-

1/ 'g,umwkdYÜ tNrJwrf;topfopfjzpfaejcif;/ 2/ tvkH;pkHaom tdrfwdkYÜ rNiduyfaompdwf½Sdonf\tjzpfaMumifhvnf;aumif;? arwåmjzifh tusdK;pD;yGg;udk jzefYEkdifonf\tjzpfaMumifhvnf;aumif; vESifhwl aom Oyrm½Sdjcif;/ 3/ ukvrapä&udk y,fEkdifjcif;/ 4/ 'g,um 'g,dumrwkdYtay: rcGJjcm;bJ tnDtrQ oem;u½kPmxm;jcif;/ 5/ 'g,umwkdY\ tdrfodkYcsOf;uyf&mü tjypfwpfpkHwpf&mrjzpfEkdifjcif;/ 6/ zdwfrHyifhac:jcif;udk vufrcHjcif;/ 7/ ydkYvmaomqGrf;jzifh tvkdr½Sdoljzpfjcif;/ 8/ tydpäwmpaom *kPftm;avsmfaomtoufarG;rI½Sdjcif;wkYdjhzpfygonf/

xkdtusdK; (8) rsdK;wdkdYwGif eHygwf (1) (2) tusdK;rsm;ESifh (8)eHygwf tusdK;rsm;onf oH,kwfygVdawmf t|uxm#Dumvm bk&m;½SifrdefYawmfrlcJhaompum; ESifhwpfxyfwnf;jzpf\/ jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifonf om0wdjynfü oDwif;okH;awmfrlpOf &[ef;awmfwkdYtm; þodkYrdefYawmfrlav\/

]]&[ef;wkdY.... oifwkYdonf v\ykH[efuJhodkY (0g) vjynfh0ef;uJhodkY tdrfrsm; ('g,um? 'g,dumrrsm;) odkYcsOf;uyfMu&rnf/ udk,fudkvnf; cGgxm;&rnf/ pdwfudk vnf;cGgxm;&rnf/ tdrfwkdYÜ tNrJtopfjzpfae&rnf/ Murf;wrf;rIr&Sdap&}}

þü v\yHk[efuJhodkY (0g) vjynfh0ef;uJhodkY [lonfrSm vjynfh0ef;uJhodkY 0dkif; pufae&rnf[k qkdvkdonfr[kwfay/ xufaumif;uifü oGm;vm;aeaom vjynfh0ef; onf rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,muf? rnfonfht&m0wKudkrQ tuRrf;0ifatmif cifrif wG,fwm ESpfoufatmif rjyKvkyfay/ odkYwap vltaygif;\cspfcifjrwfEkd;rIudkum; cH& onfomjzpfygonf/ xkdYtwl &[ef;wkdYonfvnf; rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufESifhrQ rdwfzGJUjcif; tuRrf;0ifatmifjyKvkyfjcif; ponfudkrjyKvkyfrlívltaygif;\ cspfcifjrwf Ekd;av;pm;rIudk cH,lvsuf trsdK;av;yg;wkdYodkY csOf;uyfEkdif&rnf[kqkdvkdygonf/

xkdYjyif vonf trkdufarSmufudk y,fazsmufwwf\/ tvif;a&mifudk ysHUESHYap wwf\/ xkdYtwl &[ef;onf udavomwnf;[laom trkdufarSmifudk y,fazsmufjcif; óPfwnf;[laomtvif;a&mifudk jzefYay;jcif;jzifhvnf;vESifhwlpGm 'g,umwkdY\ tdrfrsm;odkY csOf;uyfEkdif&rnf/

vonf vltrsm;udk csD;ajr§mufjcif;jzifh vrf;aMumif;trsdK;rsdK; ajymif;a½GUoGm;vm ouJhodkY &[ef;onfvnf; 'g,um 'g,dumrwkdYtm; oem;apmifha½SmufcsD;ajr§muf&ef xkdxkd t&yfodkY MuGa&mufEkdif&rnf/

vonf vqkwfyu©rS vqef;yu©odkY uyfa&mufvmvQif tpdwftydkif;rsm; wkd; yGg;vsuf tNrJtopfjzpfaeouJhodkY &[ef;onfvnf; rnf;npfaomtukodkvftzkdYudk y,fpGefYíjzLpifaomukodkvftzkdYodkYuyfa&mufvsuf *kPftaygif;jzifh wkd;yGg;vmonfh tcg vltaygif;\ESpfoufauseyfrIudk &Ekdifrnfjzpfygonf/ csD;MuL;rIudkvnf; cH&rnf jzpfygonf/ odkYjzpfí tNrJwrf;topfoabmjzifh vESifhwlaompdwf½Sdatmifusifh& rnf[kqkdvkd&if;jzpfygonf/

vonftvif;a&mifudk ay;pGrf;ouJhodkY at;jrrIudkvnf;ay;pGrf;Ekdifygonf/ v aMumifh vltrsm;pdwfcsrf;omí at;jrMu&\/ xkdYaMumifh vlwkdYtm; pdwfat;csrf;om atmifay;pGrf;EkdifygrSom &[ef;onf vuJhodkY usifhonfrnfEkdifayvddrfhrnf/

tdrfwkYdÜ(0g)'g,um 'g,dumrwdkYÜtNrJwrf;topfjzpfae&rnf [lonfrSmum; ]]{nfhonfobG,fjzpfaeap&rnf}}[kqkdvkdygonf/ {nfhonftm*EÅK&[ef;onf tpOf tm;jzifha&mufvmaomtdrfokdY0ifoGm;onfhtcg tdrfoltdrfom;rsm;u xkd{nfhonf tm*EÅK&[ef;ukd rdrdwdkY\aqGrddsK;om;csif;rsm;ESifYEdIif;um udk,fcsif;pmw&m;jzifh qGrf; vkyfauR;Mu\/ xkd{nfhonftm*EÅK&[ef;onf qGrf;pm;NyD;onfESifhwpfNydKifeuf rdrd oGm;vkd&mc&D;okdYqufvufíMuGoGm;av\/ rdrdtm;qGrf;jzifhvkyfauR;Muaom 'g,um? 'g,dumrrsm;ESifhtuRrf;0ifatmif? cifrif&if;ESD;atmifrjyKvkyfay/ xkd&[ef;uJhokdYyif "kwifaqmif&[ef;wkdYonfvnf; 'g,um? 'g,dumrrsm;wkdYÜ &if;ESD;cifriftuRrf;0if atmifrjyKvkyfrlí wpfpdrf;wpf&HuJhokdYomqufqHí tNrJwrf;topftopfjzpfae ap&rnf[kqkdvkdygonf/

þü'g,umwkdYtay:ü tNrJwrf; topfjzpfaeap&rnf[laompum;ESifhpyfí xif&Sm;ap&ef rax&fnDaemifESpfyg;\ 0wKukd azmfjyvkdygonf/

0omVe*&&GmaenDaemifESpfa,mufwkdYonf pdwfwlukd,fwljzifh&[ef;jyKcJhMu\/ ]]r[mem*ax&fESifhplVem*ax&f}}[kxif&Sm;Mu\/ xkdrax&fwkdYonf pdwåvawmifü ESpf aygif;(30)MumatmifaexdkifoDwif;okH;Muav\/ &[EÅmjzpfMuNyD;onfhaemufü rdcifukd awGY&ef[laom&nf&G,fcsufjzifh 0omVe*&&GmokdYjyefvmcJhMuNyD; 0omVe*&&Gmausmif; Üyifwnf;ckdMuav\/ aemufwpfaeYÜ rdcif&Sd&m&GmokdY0ifí qGrf;cHMuavonfrdcifjzpf olurax&fESpfyg;twGuf,m*kukd,lvmírax&fwpfyg;\oydwfü avmif;xnfhvkduf \/ rax&fukdawGYonfhtcg om;üjzpfaom cspfcifrI jzpfvmcJh\/ xkdYaMumifh rdcifjzpf olu]]t&Sifbk&m;[m wynfhawmf\om; r[mem*vm;bk&m;}}[kar;avQmuf\/ ]]aemufurax&fukd ar;Munfhaygh'umrBuD;&,f}}[kajymqkdí rax&ftBuD;uxGufcGg oGm;\/ rdcifjzpfol'g,dumrBuD;onf aemufrax&fukd ,m*kqGrf;avmif;vSLNyD; aemuf]]t&Sifbk&m;[m wynfhawmfr&JUom; plVem*vm;bk&m;}}[kar;avQmufjyef\/ xkdtcgrax&fi,fu ]]a&SUurax&fukd rar;vkdufbl;vm;'umrBuD;}} [kajymqkdí aemufurax&fi,fuvnf;xGufcGg oGm;jyef\/

þokdYrdcifESifhaomfrS rdwfzGJUrIukd jzwfxm;aom&[ef;onf tNrJwrf; 'g,um 'g,dumrwkdYtay:ü topfjzpfaeavawmh\/ rnfonfh'g,um? 'g,dumrrsm; tay:ü NiduyfwG,fwmrI &Sdrnfr[kwfawmhay/ rSef\/ 'g,um? 'g,dumrrsm;tay:ü NiduyfwG,fwmrI&Sdaeygu xkd'g,um? 'g,dumrrsm; jynfhpkHcsrf;omaevQif 0rf;ajrmuf 0rf;omjzpf&\/ qif;&J'ku©a&mufaevQif pkd;&drfylyefrIjzpf&\/ 'g,um? 'g,dumr wkdYtay:ü aqmif&GufzG,fudpöBuD;i,f ay:aygufvmygu xkdxdkudpöBuD;i,fwdkYÜ &[ef;uyg0ifaqmifay;wwfMu\/ xkdYaMumifh 'g,um? 'g,dumrwdkY tay:ü NiduyfwG,fwmrIr&Sdatmifaexkdif&ef ta&;BuD;vS\/ 'g,um? 'g,dumrwkdY tay:NiduyfwG,fwmrIr&SdykHESifhpyfvsOf;í 0dok'¨dr*f t|uxmü aum&@uausmif;ae &[ef;i,fwpfyg;\ taMumif;ukd azmfjyxm;onfukdawGU&ygonf/

aum&@uausmif;ü aexkdifoDwif;okH;aom ausmif;xkdifrax&fBuD;\ wljzpfol &[ef;i,fonf pmayusrf;*efoifMum;&ef[laom &nf&G,fcsufjzifh a&m[PZeyk'fokdYMuGoGm;\/ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmMumonfhwkdifatmif rdcif&Sd&m&yf&GmokdY jyefrMuGay/ xkd&[ef;i,f\rdcifonf tpfukdrax&fBuD;xHÜ olYom;&[ef;taMumif;ukd rMumcPar;jref;\/ wpfaeYaomtcg rax&fBuD;onf olYwlOD;Zif;ukd jyefac:&ef a&m[PZeyk'fokdYMuGoGm;\/ &[ef;i,fonfvnf; rdrd\OyZÑm,fq&mESifhrdcifukd awGU&ef[laom&nf&G,fcsufjzifh aum&@u&GmokdYjyefMuGvm\/ q&mwynfhESpfOD; wkdYonf vrf;c&D;ü r[ma0vd**Fgac: jrpfqdyfü awGUqkHMuav\/ xkdtcgrax&f BuD;u wljzpfol&[ef;tm;]]b,fukdoGm;rSmvJ}} [kar;aomtcg &[ef;i,fu ol&nf&G,fxm;onfhtwkdif; jyefvnfavQmufxm;av\/ xkdtcg rax&fBkuD;u ]]oif&Gmjyefvmwmaumif;\/ oifhr,fawmfonfoifhukdcPcPar;jref;ae\/igvnf; oifhukdac:&ef þt&yfokdYvmcJh\/ oifoGm;ayawmh? iguawmh 'D a&m[PZeyk'frSm 'Dwpf0gaeOD;rnf}}[kajymqkdí &[ef;i,fukd vGwfvkduf\/

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