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[email protected]"kwif taMumif;


tcef; (3)

qGrf;ESifhoufqkdifaomusifh0wf"kwifrsm;

3; 1; 1;/ / [email protected]"kwift"dyÜg,f

olwpfyg;wkdYay;vSLaomqGrf;paomtmrdowkdY\ oydwftwGif;okdY usa&muf jcif;onf [email protected]\/ xkdqGrf;paomtmrdowkdYukd ½SmrSD;avh½Sdaom&[ef; awmfonf [email protected] = [email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;rnf\/ [email protected] = awmif;cH tyfaom wpfvkyfwpfcJqGrf;wkdY\ usjcif;ukd + £u- ½Smaomol= [email protected] = wpfvkyfwpfcJ qGrf;wkdYusjcif;ukd½Smaomol/ (wpfenf;) yd@ - qGrf;tvdkUiSg+ ygw-vSnfhvnf&ef+ £u- usifh0wf ½Sdaomol = [email protected] =qGrf;tvdkYiSgvSnfhvnf&ef usifh0wf½Sdaomol/ (0g) qGrf;cHusifh 0wf½Sdol/ xkdyk'fonfyif utu©&mESifhwuG [email protected][lí jzpfvm jcif;jzpfygonf/ xkdqGrf;tvdkYiSg vSnfhvnfaom usifh0wf½Sd aom&[ef;awmf\ tusifhodu©mü aqmufwnfaMumif;jzpfaom taMumif;t*Fg apwemonf [email protected]*F = [email protected]"kwifrnf\/

3; 1; 2/ / [email protected]"kwifaqmufwnfykH

[email protected]"kwifukd]]twda&uvmbH y#du©dygrd? [email protected]*ø orm'd,mrd}} [k ygVdbmomoufoufjzifhvnf;aumif;? ]]qGrf;cHí &aomqGrf;xuf tykdtvGefjzpfaom (oHCbwftp½Sdaom) vmbfukd y,fyg\/ qGrff;tvdkYiSg vSnhfvnfjcif; (qGrf;cHjcif;) tavh½Sdaom&[ef;\ taMumif;t*Fgapwemukd aqmufwnfyg\}} [kjrefrmbmom pum;oufoufjzifhvnf;aumif; rdrdESpfouf&m bmompum;jzifh aqmufwnfusifhokH; Ekdifygonf/

3; 1; 3/ / [email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;vufrcH&aomqGrf;(14)rsdK;

txufazmfjyonfhtwdkif; [email protected]"kwifaqmufwnfNyD;aom &[ef;awmfonf

1/ oHCbwå = oHCmtm;vkH;tm; vSL'gef;aomqGrf;/ 2/ Oa'´obwå = oHCmrS ñTefMum;apí vSLtyfaomqGrf;/ 3/ edrEÅebwå = yifhzdwfí vSLtyfaomqGrf;/ 4/ ovmubwå = pma&wHrJcsí vSL'gef;aomqGrf;/ 5/ yu©dubwå = vqef;yu© vqkwfyu©üwpfBudrfomvSLaomqGrf;/ 6/ Oaygoxdubwå = OykofaeYü vSLtyfaomqGrf;/ 7/ yg#dy'dubwå = OykoftxGufwpf&ufaeYü vSLtyfaomqGrf;/ 8/ tm*EÅKubwå = {nfhonf&[eff;wkdYukd &nfrSef;í vSLtyfaomqGrf;/ 9/ *rdubwå = c&D;oGm;rnfh&[ef;wkdYukd &nfrSef;í vSLtyfaomqGrf;/ 10/ *dvmebwå = emrusef;aom&[ef;wkdYukd&nfrSef;í vSLtyfaomqGrf;/ 11/ *dvmEky|mubwå= rusef;rmaom &[ef;wkdYukd jyKpkvkyfauR;aom &[ef; wkdYukd&nfrSef;í vSLtyfaomqGrf;/ 12/ 0d[m&bwå = ausmif;wkdufukd (0g) ausmif;ae&[ef;wkdYukd &nfrSef;í vSLtyfaomqGrf;/ 13/ "kk&bwå =qGrf;cH0if&mtOD;tptdrfüwnfxm;ívSLtyfaomqGrf;/ 14/ 0g&bwå = tvSnfhusjzifh vSLtyfaomqGrf;/

þ(14)yg;ukefaomqGrf;wkdUukd [email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;wkdukd rom,mtyf? vufrcHtyfukef/ qGrf;cHvSnfhvnfí &vmaomqGrf;ukdomvQif om,m&rnfjzpfyg onf/

t*Fkwå&t|uxm [email protected]ÅmotzGifhü uk#Dbwå = uk#D(ausmif;i,f)ukd vSLaomqGrf;ukdyga&wGufí jyqkdxm;onfukdawGU&\/ okdYaomf t*FkwådK&fvmuk#Dbwå onf 0d[m&bwåü tusKH0ifNyD;omvQifjzpfygonf/

3; 1; 3; 1/ / "kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvftm; tyfpyfatmif qGrf;vSL'gef;ykH

txufazmfjyyg (14) rsdK;ukefaomqGrf;wkdYukd tyfpyfatmif vSL'gef;vdk aom 'g,um 'g,dumrwkdYonf [email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;tm; ]]oHCbwftp½Sdonf udk tvSLcHawmfrlygukefbk&m;}} [kravQmufxm;rlí ]]wynfhawmfwkdY\tdrfü oHCm awmfrsm; qGrf;cH,lMuyg\? t½Sifbk&m;wkdYvnf; qGrf;udkcH,lawmfrlMuygbk&m;}} [k qGrf;cHqGrf;[laoma0g[m&jzifh vSL'gef;&rnf/ xkdodkYavQmufxm;í vSL'gef;aom qGrf;udk [email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf bkOf;ay;okH;aqmifEkdifygonf/

þae&mü 0dok'¨dr*fr[m#DumwGif qGrf;[laomy&d,m,fjzifhqkdaomaMumifh yd@ ygwf"kwifaqmif&[ef;wkYdtm;tyf\[k jyqkdxm;onfudkawGU&\/ ,ckacwfü xrif; [laoma0g[m&jzifhqGrf;rzdwfMu/ qGrf;[laoma0g[m&jzifhom zdwfrHMuaomaMumifh [email protected]"kwifysufEkdifcJ\/ xkdYaMumifh [email protected]"kwifudk aeYpOfaqmufwnfoifhonf [kq&mjrwfwkdYrdefYqkdaMumif; 0dok'¨dr*ft&omusrf;ü jyqkdxm;ygonf/

xkdYjyifoHCmxHrS&aom ,m0umvdurSwpfyg;aom aq;ponfwkdYESifhwuG vSL 'gef;tyfaompma&;wHqGrf;? qGrf;auR;&ef 'g,umwkdYu ausmif;ücsufívSLtyfaom qGrf;wkdYudkvnf; [email protected]"kwifaqmif &[ef;wkdYbkOf;ay;okH;aqmifEkdif\/ ausmif;ü½Sd aomopfoD;BuD;i,fudkvnf; bkOf;ay;okH;aqmifEkdifygonf/ þum;qGrf;paomtmrdo ESifhpyfí [email protected]"kwiffaqmif&[ef;wkdY owdjyKzG,frsm;yifjzpfygonf/

3; 1; 4/ / [email protected]"kwifaqmif yk*¾dKvfokH;rsdK;

[email protected]"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfonf

1/ Ouú|[email protected] = tjrwfpm;[email protected]"kwifaqmif OuúXfyk*¾dKvf/ 2/ rZÑ[email protected] = tvwfpm;[email protected]"kwifaqmif rZÑdryk*¾dKvf/ 3/ [email protected] = tnHhpm;[email protected]"kwifaqmif rk'kyk*¾dKvf[lí okH;rsdK;uGJ jym;\/

xkdokH;rsdK;wkdYwGif -

1/ tjrwfpm;[email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf ra&mufao;aoma½SUtdrfrSvnf; aumif;? ausmfvGefNyD;aom aemuftdrfrS vnf;aumif; aqmif,lcJhaomqGrf;ESifh ra&mufao;aoma½SUtdrf? vGefcJhNyD;aom aemuftdrfwkdYrS tkd;cGufponfjzifh qGrf;pm;Z&yfodkY xnfhí,lvmNyD; avmif;vSLaomqGrf;wkdYudkcH,lEkdif\/ xkdYjyif a&mufqJtdrfwHcg;ü&yfvsuf oydwfudk vm,laom 'umwkdYudk oydwfay;í vnf;qGrf;cH,lEkdif\/ okdYaomfxkdaeYtzkdYü ]],aeYzdwfxm;aomqGrf;vmvdrfh rnf}}[k apmifharQmfí xkdifaeum qGrf;udkrcH,laumif;ay/

2/ tvwfpm; [email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf xkdaeYtzkdYü apmifharQmfíxkdifae umzdwfrHxm;aomqGrf;udkcH,lEkdif\/ aemufwpfaeY okH;aqmif&eftwGufzdwf rHxm;aomqGrf;udk vufrcHaumif;ay/

3/ tnHhpm; [email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf eufzef tusdK;iSgvnf;aumif;? obufcgtusdK;iSgvnf; aumif;zdwfxm;aom qGrf;wkdYudkvufcHom,mEkdif\/ (0g) cH,lEkdif\/

3; 1; 4; 1/ / [email protected]"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfokH;rsdK;\

xl;jcm;csufrsm;

xkdokH;rsdK;[email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;wkdYwGif tvwfpm;[email protected] "kwifaqmif&[ef;ESifh tnhHpm;[email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;wkYdonf rdrdtvkdqE´ESifhtnD usifhokH;aexkdifjcif;ESifhpyfaom csrf;omokcudkr&½SdEkdifMuukef/ tjrwfpm; [email protected]"kwif aqmif&[ef;onfomvQif rdrdtvkdqE´twkdif; ae&jcif;ESifhpyfaomcsrf;omokcudk&½SdEkdif \/ xkdodkY&½SdEkdifaMumif;udk atmufazmfjyygom"ujzifhod½SdEkdifygonf/

a½S;tcgu ½Gmwpf½GmwGif t&d,0HookwfESifhpyfaom w&m;yGJ wpfyGJusif;y\/ tjrwfpm;[email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf tvwfpm; [email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;ESifh tnHhpm;[email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;ESpfyg;wkdYudk ]]igh½SifwkdY w&m;emoGm;MuukefpkdY}} [k ac:\/ xkd&[ef;ESpfyg;wdkYwGif tvwfpm;[email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf ]]t½Sif bk&m;wynfhawmfudk 'g,umwpfOD;uqGrf;zdwfxm;ygao;onf? wynfhawmfrvkdufEkdif ygbk&m;}}[kqkd\/ tnHhpm;[email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;uvnf; tvm;wlyif avQmuf xm;av\/ odkYjzpfí xkd&[ef;ESpfyg;wkdYonf rdrdtvkdqE´twkdif;ae&jcif;ESifhpyfaom csrf;omokcrS (0g) w&m;ESifhpyfaom yDwd ygarmZÆpaomt&omrS qkH;½IH;&avukef\/ tjrwfpm; [email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;onfomvQif eHeufapmapmuyif qGrf;cHvSnfh vnfí w&m;yGJ½Sd&modkYoGm;NyD; w&m;emaomaMumifh w&m;ESifhpyfaom yDwdygarmZÆ paomt&omudk cHpm;&avonf/ þum; [email protected]"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfokH;rsdK;\ xl; jcm;csufrsm;yifjzpfygonf/

3; 1; 5/ / [email protected]"kwifysufpD;jcif;/

þ[email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;tm;vkH;wkdYonf qGrf;cHqGrf;rSydkvGefaom oHC bwfpaomtwda&uvmbfudk vufcHom,maom cPüyif"kwifysufygonf/ xkdY aMumifh [email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;wkdYonf avmvkyÜwPSmodkY rvkdufrlí "kwif tusifhodu©modkY a½S;½Ionfho'¨gpdwf"mwf ckdifckdifuyfvsuf [email protected]"kwifudk aqmuf wnfusifhokH;&rnf jzpfygonf/

3; 1; 6/ / [email protected]"kwifaqmif&jcif;\ tusdK;tmedoifrsm;

[email protected]"kwifudkaqmufwnfusifhokH;jcif;jzifh atmufü azmfjyrnfhtusdK; tmed oif rsm;udk&½SdEkdifygonf/ 4if;wkdYrSm-

1/ &[ef;b0onf ovkH;jrif;acgif;ajcESpfacsmif;jzifh vSnfhvnf½SmrSD;í&aom qGrf;udk trSDjyKum rQwae&rnf[kbk&m;½Sif rdefYawmfrlaomaMumifh &[ef; jzpfpOftcgu odrftwGif;ü tEkomouq&mu rSD&mav;yg;udkqkH;ronf ½Sdaomf]]tmr baEÅ}}[k0efcHcJhonfh yxredó,ESifhavsmfaomtusifh&Sdjcif;/ 2/ [email protected]Åmo [laom 'kwd,t&d,0How&m;ü wnfNyD;jzpfjcif;/ 3/ udk,fhtm;udkudk;í toufarG;jrLjcif;/ 4/ wefzkd;enf;í&vG,fonf? tjypfuif;ayonf[k bk&m;½SifcsD;rGrf;tyfaom ypönf;½Sdoljzpfjcif;/ 5/ qGrf;cH&efysif;&drIudk ESdyfuGyfEkdifjcif;/ 6/ pifMu,faomtoufarG;rI½Sdjcif;/ 7/ aocd,usifh0wfESifhjynfhpkHjcif;/ 8/ qGrf;cH,l&mü twkdif;t½Snfudkodjcif;? vlwdkYESifha&maESmí raejcif;wkdY aMumifholwpfyg;wkdYudk cJ,Of;ojzifhrarG;jrLapjcif;/ 9/ qGrf;avmif;ol'g,um 'g,dumrwkdYtm; csD;ajr§mufrIjyK&ma&mufjcif;/ 10/ atmufqkH;jzpfaom toufarG;rIüwnfojzifh rmefrmeudky,fNyD;jzpfjcif;/ 11/ &owPSmudk y,fcGGgEkdifjcif;/ 12/ *PabmZeodu©myk'f? y&rÜ&abmZeodu©myk'f? pm&dwåodu©myk'fwkdYjzifh tmywfroifhjcif;/ 13/ tyÜdpäwmpaom *kPfwkdYtm;avsmfaom toufarG;rI½Sdjkcif;/ 14/ or®my#dywftusifhjrwfudk wkd;yGg;apjcif;/ 15/ aemifvmaemufom;&[ef;rsm;wkdY twkvkdufí usifhapjcif;jzifh xkdaemifvm aemufom; &[ef;wkdYudk csD;ajr§muf&ma&mufjcif;wkdYyifjzpfygonf/

3; 1; 7/ / "kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfwkdY\ qGrf;cHusifh0wf

[email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf NrdKUwGif;½GmwGif;okdY qGrf;cH0ifawmhrnf[k qkdvQif jrwfpGmbk&m;½SifynwfawmfrlcJhaom aocd,odu©myk'fwkdYudk ½kdaoav;pm;pGm vkdufem usifhaqmif&rnfjzpfygonf/ xkdokdYvdkufemusifhaqmifjcif;jzifh qGrf;avmif; ol'g,um 'g,dumrwkdY\ o'¨gw&m;ukd ykdíckdifrmaponfomru orPygom'du *kPfukdvnf;wufapEkdifonfjzpfygonf/

ouFef;0wf½kHonfhtcg oif;ykdifukd 'l;atmufvuf½Spfopf? {uoDukd 'l;atmuf vufav;opfcefYcsí 0dkif;0ef;nDnmpGm 0wf½kH&\/ avwkdufaomtcg ouFef;rsm;vGifh raeatmif ouFef;ukd tem;ywfoD;wyfxm;&rnf/ vnfvufaumuf0wfwkdYukd aumif; pGmzkH;vTrf;xm;&rnf/ awmusD;uef;uJhokdYrsufpdtm; rxdrf;odrf;bJ t&yfrsufESmwkdYokdU £ajE´rJhpGmrMunfh&acs/ pu©KajE´ukdEkdifatmifxdef;í rsufvTmukd av;awmifcefYrQ jrifEkdif½kH csí oGm;vm&\/ ouFef;ukdyifhrí oGm;vmjcif;rsdK;ukd a½SmifMuOf&rnfjzpf\/ tcsdKU&[ef;awmfrsm;onf aeylçrkd;½GmaomtcgrsdK;ü ½kHxm;aomouFef;p wpfbufukd OD;acgif;ay:okdYwifí oGm;Muonfukd awGUjrifae&\/ xkduJhokdYoGm;vmjcif;rsdK;ukdvnf; a½SmifMuOf&rnfjzpf\/ NrdKUwGif;½GmwGif;wkdYü us,favmifaom toHjzifhajymqdkjcif;? &,farmjcif;wkdYukd rjyK&ay/ wkd;wkd;nifompGm ajymqkd&rnfjzpf\/ cE¨mukd,fukdvIyfí oGm;jcif;? vuf½kH;ukdvIyfíoGm;jcif;? OD;acgif;ukd vIyfíoGm;jcif;? cg;axmufíoGm;jcif;? vufykdufíoGm;jcif;? z0g;qGHUeif;í (ajczsm;axmuf) oGm;jcif;rsdK;wkdYudkvnf;a½SmifMuOf& rnfjzpfonf/

NrdKUwGif;½GmwGif;ESifh tdrfwHcg;0rsm;okdU 0ifxGufoGm;vm&mü tvGefvQifjrefpGm 0ifxGufoGm;vmjcif;rsdK;ukda½Smif½Sm;í raES;rvsif0ifxGuf oGm;vm&rnfjzpf\/ rdrd qGrf;cHrnfhtdrfokdU0if&mü 0ifaygufxGufaygufwkdUukd aocsmpGmrSwfom;í 0ifxGuf oGm;vm&\/ þokdYrdrd0iffxGuf oGm;vmrnfhwHcg;aygufwdkUukd aocsmpGmrrSwfom;bJ oGm;vmrdaomaMumifh jrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifvufxufawmftcgu &[ef;wpfyg;onf 'g,dumrwpfOD; tdyfaysmfaeaomtcef;ukd]]wHcg;ayguf}}[kxifrSwfí 0ifrdaomaMumifh xkd'g,dumr\ cifyGef;onfa,musfm;utxifvGJNyD; xkaxmif;½kdufESufjcif;ukd cHcJh&zl; aMumif; rSwfwrf;awGY&ygonf/ xkdYaMumifh wHcg;aygufrsm;ukd aocsmpGmrSwfom;xm; &rnf[kqkd&jcif; jzpfygonf/

qGrf;&yf&müvnf; qGrf;avmif;rnf? ravmif;rnfukdtuJcwf&rnf/ tvGefMum atmifvnf;r&yf&? r½SnfrMumom&yf&rnf/ qGrf;ukdcH,l&mü oydwfü trSwfonm xm;um vufESpfbufjzifhoydwfukd½kdaopGmukdifajrmufíoydwftwGif;tem;a&;ESifhtrQ cH,l&rnf/ avmvkyÜwPSmjzifh oydwfjynfhvQHzdwfpifoGm;atmif rcH,l&ay/ qGrf;[if; ukdcH,l&mü qGrf;\av;ykHwpfykHomcH,l&rnf/ þae&müqGrf;ESifhqGrf;[if;ukdcH,l&mESifh ywfoufí t*Fkwå&t|uxm t&d,0Hookwå0PÖemü atmufygtwdkif;zGifhqkda&; om;xm;onfukd awGU&ygonf/

1/ vSLzG,fypönf;0wKrsm;rsm;½SdNyD; 'g,umutenf;i,fomvSLvdkrltenf;i,f omtvSLcH&jcif;/ 2/ vSLzG,fypönf;0wKuvnf;rsm;pGm½SdNyD; 'g,umuvnf;rsm;pGmvSLvkdrl yrP jzifhom tvSLcH&jcif;/ 3/ vSLzG,fypönf;0wKu tenf;i,fom½SdNyD; 'g,umutenf;i,fomvSLvdkrl tenf;i,fom tvSLcH&jcif;/ 4/ vSLzG,fypönf;0wKu tenf;i,fom½SdNyD; 'g,umu rsm;pGmvSLvdkrl yrmP jzifhom tvSLcH&jcif;/

þazmfjyyg t*Fgav;yg;wkdYonf tvSLcHyk*¾dKvfrsm; jzpfMuaom &[ef;rsm;twGuf vGefpGmrSta&;BuD;vS\/ tb,fhaMumifhqkdaomf tvSLcH,lrIü twkdif;t½SnfukdrodbJ tvSLcH,lrdvQifvSL'gef;olwkdY\MunfndKrIukd zsufqD;½kHomru xkdolwkdY\ o'¨gw&m;udkvnf; ysufpD;apEkdifygonf/ omoemjyK&mvnf; ra&mufay/ arG;onfhrdcifyifjzpfaomfvnf; twdkif;t½SnfukdrodbJ tvSLcH,lrdvQif MunfndKrI ysufpD;Ekdifygonf/ xkdYaMumifhtvSLcH,l&mü twkdif;t½Snfukdod½Sdem;vnfpGm tvSLcH ,l&rnfjzpfygonf/

xkdYjyif [email protected]"kwifaqmif&[ef;onf qGrf;avmif;aepOfqGrf;avmif;ol 'g, um 'g,dumrrsm;\ rsufESmukd pu©KajE´csxm;jcif;rS y,fzsufí rsufvTmukd yifhNyD;vQif rMunfh½Ityfay/ tu,fí Munfhrdygu 'kuú#ftmywfoifhygonf/ qGrf;paom vmb ouúm&ESifhywfoufí 'g,um 'g,dumrwdkYtm;ypönf;vSL&eftrSwf&atmifjyKrlajymqkd jcif;? trSwfedrdwft&dyft>rufukdjyjcif;? qGrf;paomtmrdoypönf;rsm;&atmif xyfwvJ vJajymqkdjcif;wkdYukd a½SmifMuOf&rnf/

a½S;tcgu &[ef;wpfyg;onf EGm;ausmif;om;wkdYtm;]]'DEGm;uav;u EkdUpkdUEGm; uav;vm;}}[kar;jref;ajymqkd\/ ]]EkdUpkdUEGm;uav;ygbk&m;}}[k jyefajzvQif xkd&[ef;u ]]EkdYpkdUEGm;uav;rjzpfEdkifbl;?EkdYpkdUEGm;uav;jzpfw,fqkd&if'kdY&[ef;awGvnf;EGm;EkdYaomuf &rSmaygh}}[kajymqkdav\/ xkd&[ef;ajymqkdaompum;ukd EGm;ausmif;om;rsm;rSwqifh rdbrsm;Mum;odaomtcg EGm;EkdUukd ay;ykdUvSL'gef;av\/ þuJhokdY qGrf;paomtmrdo ypönf;rsm;&atmif t&dyfedrdwfjyí ajymqkdjcif;rsdK;rsm;ukd txl;a½SmifMuOf&rnfjzpfyg onf/

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