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"r®'ge á oHC á "kwif á ausmfMum; "kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfrsm;
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xifay:ausmfMum; jrefrmjynf"kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfrsm;


tcef; (5)

jrefrmEkdifiHwGif vlrod olrod½Gwfykef;oD;b0jzifh b0ed*kH;tqkH;owfoGm;Mu aomy&d,wfy#dywf pG,fpkHwwfaomolawmfpifyk*¾dKvfrsm;ESifh xifay:ausmfMum;vlodrsm; cJhaom olawmfpifyk*¾dKvfrsm; tvGefyifrsm;jym;vSygonf/ þusrf;wGifrl "kwiftusifh jrwfy#dywfESifhywfoufí ausmfMum;cJhaom "kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfBuD;rsm;taMumif;ukdom a&;om;wifjyoGm;ygrnf/ xkdokdYa&;om;&mü tcsdKUaom "kwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfrsm;\ ax½kyÜwdårSm tvGefyif&Snfvsm;vSygojzifh "kwifaqmifjcif;ESihfxl;jcm;onfhtjzpf tysufrsm;udkom a&;om;wifjyoGm;rnfjzpfygonf/

5; 1/ / [efvif;acwf yHokul"[email protected]"kwifaqmif

'defausmif;t&Sifokar"m

[efvif;acwfwGif"kwifESifhtusifhESifhywfoufí xif&Sm;ausmfMum;cJhaomyk*¾dKvf rSm [efvif;NrdKUteD;üaeaom t&Sifokar"mrax&fyif jzpfygonf/ xkdrax&fonf psmef tbdnmOf&í &[EÅm[kyifausmfMum;cJhonf/ xkdt&Sifonf [efvif;NrdKU rSwfxdo½kdif ½GmrS ta&SUawmif ,Gef;,Gef;wGifwnf&Sdaom 'defausmif;üaexkdifoDwif;okH;cJhonf/

yHokul"kwifESifh [email protected]"kwifudk tNrJrjywfaqmufwnfusifhokH;avh&Sd\/ 0denf;odu©myk'fwkdYudk ½kdaoav;pm;pGmusifhaqmif\/ psmeftbdnmOf& &[EÅmyk*¾dKvfjzpf onf[komoemvuFm&pmwrf;ü azmfjyxm;onfudkawGY&ygonf/

xkdrax&fonf aeYpOf&Spf,lZema0;aomajcawmf&mapwDodkYBuGí apwD,*FP 0wfrsm;udk jyKNyD;rS rSwfxdo½dkif½GmüqGrf;cHavh&Sdonf/ omoemvuFm&pmwrf;ü ]]rSwfxdo½dkif½Gm}}[kazmfjyxm;aomfvnf; trSefrSm rSwfxdwpf½Gm? o½kdifwpf½Gmjzpf onf/ rSwfxd½Gmü ,ckwkdif ]]okar"m}}bk&m;[ktxift&Sm;yif&Sdao;\/ ,ckacwf a½Tbkdc½kdif0ufvufNrdKUwGif&Sdygonf/

5; 2/ / yk*Hacwf ipG,f&SifyHokulrax&f

yk*Hacwf e&ywdpnfolrif;BuD;vufxufwGif yHokul"kwifudk tNrJaqmufwnf usifhokH;aom oDvAk'¨drnfaomrax&fwpfyg;&SdcJhzl;\/ xkdrax&fonf yHokulouFef;ukd om0wf½kHokH;;aqmifavh&SdonfhtwGufaMumifh yHokulrax&f[komvlodrsm;\/ ]]ipG,f&Sif}}[kwGifaom taMumif;um; þodkYjzpf\/

ipG,fi,fac:aom EGm;ausmif;om; vli,fwpfa,mufonf oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifh twl EGm;ausmif;ae&mrS þokdYajymqkd\/ ]]oli,fcsif;wkdY rif;wkdYvnf; ukokdvf&ap? igvnf;ukokdvf&apatmif igao[efaqmifrnf? ighukd,fay:wGif rif;wkdY&JUt0wfykqkd; rsm;ukd wifvTrf;NyD; rax&fjrwftm; yHokulaumufawmfrlyg[kavQmufMuav}}[kqkdav \/ oli,fcsif;rsm;vnf; ipG,fi,fqkdwkdif;jyKvkyfMuNyD; rax&fjrwftm; avQmufMu \/ rax&fjrwfvnf; okomefodkYBuGí yHokulaumufawmfrl\/ rax&fjrwf>u oGm;aomtcg ipG,fi,fvnf; vlaotppfjzpfí touf½SL&yfav\/

xkdtaMumif;ukd ipG,fi,f\oli,fcsif;rsm;jrifavvQif ipG,fi,f\rdbrsm;udk tusdK;taMumif;ajymjy\/ ipG,fi,f\rdbaqGrsdK;wkdYonf rax&ftm;avQmufMum; vwfaomf rax&fjrwfjyefBuGvmíy&dwfarwåmjyKaomtcgrSipG,fi,fxí&Sdckd;\/ rdb rsm;uipG,fi,fudk rax&ftm;vSL\/ xkdtcsdefrSpí ]]ipG,f&SifyHokulrax&f}}[kwGifav onf/ yk*Hacwfu þrax&fonf bkef;wefckd;tmEkabmfvGefpGmBuD;awmfrl\/

5; 3; tm&nuif"kwifaqmifawmifzDvmq&mawmf

tif;0acwf? omvGefrif;w&m;BuD;vufxuf (990-1010)wGif xifay:ausmf Mum;vlodrsm;cJhaomq&mawmfrSm awmifzDvm q&mawmfjzpfygonf/ xkdrax&fonf tm&nuif"kwifaqmufwnfí awmifzDvmacsmifü aexkdifoDwif;okH;cJhonf/

owkd;rif;apmvufxufwGif 0ufvufNrdKUü 940jynfhESpfwGif zGm;jrifcJh\/ qD;awmq&mawmf0ifpm;onf[kvnf;qkdMu\/ i,fpOfuyif omraP0wfcJh\/ bGJUawmfrSm &SifrkedE´aCmojzpfonf/ 13ESpfom;t½G,fwGif jynfNrdKUodkYa&mufawmfrlí ynmoifMum;\/ omraPausmf[kxifay:ausmfMum;avonf/

oufawmfESpfq,fjynfhaomtcsdefwGif &Ekdifpm;\ypö,mEk*¾[jzifh&[ef;b0okdY a&mufcJh\/ jynfyOöif;ausmf[kxif&Sm;cJhavonf/ xkdacwfu tif;0yOöif;ausmf t&Sift&d,m0HoESifhpmNydKifí ajymqkdcJh\/

omvGefrif;w&m;vufxufa&mufaomtcg ]]wdydd#umvuFm&}} bGJUwHqdyfudk uyfvSLjcif;cH&\/ wpf&HaomtcgawmifzDvmq&mawmfonf ref;pufawmf&mrStjyef wGif xkdref;pufawmf&mteD;ü tm&nuif"kwifaqmufwnfí 0denf;ig;usrf; ygVd? t|uxmedó,rsm;udk a&;om;pD&ifcJhaom a½TOrifq&mawmf]]t&SifZrÁL"Z}} rax&fxH 0ifí omoema&;udpörsm;udkaqG;aEG;ajymqkd\/ awmifzDvmq&mawmfu a½TOrif q&mawmftm;]]t&Sifbk&m; awmBuD;xJü tazmfrrDS;wpfudk,fwnf;ae&wm raMumuf bl;vm;}}[kar;avQmuf&m a½TOrifq&mawmfu ]]aMumufvkdYyif wpfa,mufwnf; aeyg onf}}[ktajzay;vQif awmifzDvmq&mawmftm;]]ighrSm oHo&mab; raMumufojzifh wpfa,mufwnf; rae&ma&mufaeygNyDaum}}[kawG;awmpOf;pm;um owdoHa0*&ap \/

xkdpum;aMumifhyif aejynfawmfokdYjyefa&mufaomtcg ppfukdif;awmifESifhrif;0H awmifMum; uefYvefYjzwfzDvmjrifawGY&aomt&yfü awm&aqmufwnfum oDwif;okH; avawmh\/ xkdt&yfonf awmifzDvmacsmif[k,ckwkdifwGifavonf/ awmifzDvmacsmifü aexkdifoDwifokH;onfudk taMumif;jyKí awmifzDfvmq&m awmf[kxif&Sm;cJhavonf/ xkkdawmifzDvmacsmifü aexkdifoDwif;okH;pOf tvGefacsmarm vSyonfh eef;wGif;olowkdYorD;uav;ESifh wpfnwm aecJh&\/ eef;wGif;ol trsdK;orD; \ rm,mñGwfuGif;rS½kef;xGufEkdif&ef wHyloyf&m"m;i,fjzifh rdrdajcovkH;om;ukdcGJí a0'emEkyóemur®|mef;udk yGm;rsm;cJh&avonf/

rif;ESifhjynfolwkdYxkdeef;wGif;ol trsdK;orD;ESifh ,kHrSm;oHo,&SdMuaomaMumifh ]]ig \oDvysufpD;ygrl þ"m;armufonf a&okdYcsaomcPü a&wGifjrKwfapom;? pifMu,f ygrl a&0,ful;apom;}}[kopömqkdí awmifzDvmuefücsjyav\/ "m;armufonf a&wGifjzwfoef;í ig;uJhokdY wvef;vef;ul;av\/ xkdtcgrS rif;ESifhjynfolwkdYoHo, uif;MuNyD;a&S;uxufyifwdk;í MunfndKMuavonf/ awmifzDvmq&mawmfudkvnf; ]]"m;rçul;q&mawmf}}[kac:a0:cJhMuavonf/

q&mawmfonf awmifzDvmacsmifü&moufyefaexkdifí tm&nuif"kwiftusihf udk aqmufwnfuskifhokH;cJhonf/ 1012-ckESpf? oufawmf (&2)ESpfwGif ysHvGefawmfrlav onf/

5; 4/ / edoZf"kwifaqmif t&Sifo'¨r®mvuFm&

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wpfckaom nOfhOD;,mrfwGif ybmacsmifrS ykn&SifapwDodkYwufí q&ma&SU arSmufwGifomru jrwfpGmbk&m;a&SUü yifedoZf"kwifudk avQmufxm;í xyfrHwif;MuyfpGm aqmufwnfjyef\/ t&Sifo'¨r®mvuFm&onf rdwfaqGt&Sif0dok'¨gpm&udk owif;pkHprf; í q&mawGUNyDjzpfaMumif;taMumif;Mum;\/ xkdYaMumifh t&Sif0dok'¨gpm&onfvnf; ybmacsmif psmevmbDyk*¾dKvfjrwfxHwGif vma&mufíw&m;tm;xkwfav\/ t&Sifo'¨r®mpm&onfybmacsmifpsmevmbDrax&fjrwfxHwGif tm;&auseyf avmufatmif tm;xkwfNyD;aemuf tr&yl&NrdKU\ta&SU vrdkif;e,fpD&ifpk ewfpk½Gmudk a*gp&*grfjyKí oDwif;okH;aeawmfrlcJh\/ orx0dyóemw&m;rsm;udk rdrdvnf; tm;xkwfusifhBuHí &[ef;&Sifvltaygif;wkdYudkvnf; enf;ay;ñTefjyawmfrlav\/

umvMumvwfaomf t&Sifo'¨r®mvuFm&ü aovkeD;yg;aMumufrufzG,faumif; aom a&m*gwpfrsdK;pGJuyfavawmh\/ rnfrQavmufa&m*g jyif;xefapumrl BudwfrSdwf onf;cHawmfrlvsuf OD;acgif;ESihfausmufukef;udk acgif;tkH;ESifhtdyf&mokdYrnfonfhtcg rQrcsbJ ikwfwkwftm;xkwf NrJtm;xkwfawmfrl\/ jrif&olrsm;twGuf pdwfroufrom u½kPmjzpfMu\/ wynfhrsm;u edoZf"kwifudkcPcsxm;zkdY&ef avQmufxm; Muaomtcg avoH tm;EGJUí,Jh,JhrQ&SdonfhMum;u]] wynfhwkdY... edoZf"kwifudk t"d|mefaMumifhomaqmif onfr[kwf? ur®|mef;w&m;[lonf aocgeD;av zdíBudK;pm;&avvkyf&onf/ a&m*g r&Sdolonfyif aygifukdausmufwkef;ESifhxkí a0'emvkyf,lMuzl;onf/ a&m*gudkckcHEkdif onfrSm ur®|mef;w&m;wpfckon&SdonfwynfhwdkY? aojcif;w&m;um; tqef;r[kwf? bk&m;&[EÅmrsm;aomfrS vGefqef½kd;r&SdNyD}}[krdefYawmfrl\/ wynfhrsm;vnf;qdwfqdwf omaeMu&awmh\/ twefMumtarmajzNyD;aemuf ]] wynfhwdkY... igwkdYudkjrwfEkd;vQif aotHhqJqJjzpfaecsdefrSm tm;rxkwf&zl;ao;aom w&m;rsm;jzpfay:ap&efom wkdufwGef; Mu? tm;xkwfqJw&m;rsm;ukdum; avsmhyg;qkwf,kwfatmif rwm;jrpfcsifMuygESifh}} [kaemufqkH; pum;rdefYMum;awmfrlav\/

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5; 5/ / tm&nuif"kwifaqmif yxrxGwfacgifawm&q&mawmf

yxrxGwfacgifawm&q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;onf jrefrmEkdifiHü xifjcm;ausmfMum; onfhq&mawmfjzpfygonf/ tcsdKUu t&d,myk*¾dKvf[kyif ajymqkdMuonf/ q&mawmf onf jrif;arG;awm&? vufvkkyfawm&? aygufawmuefawm&ponfh awm&rsm;ü tm&nuif"kwifaqmufwnfusifhokH;cJhonf/

xkdq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;ukd [oFmwc½kdif av;rsufESmNrdKUteD; jrif;ukef;½Gmü tz OD;vlBuD;? trd a':arwkdYrS 1160-ckESpf? waygif;vqef; (15)&uf t*FgaeY aewufcsdefwGif zGm;jrifawmfrlcJhygonf/ i,femrnfrSmarmifpkdjzpfygonf/

touf(13)ESpfkom;t½G,fwGif &SifomraP0wfcJhonf/ bGJUawmfrSm &SifóP"Z jzpfonf/ OyZÑm,fq&mawmfxHwGif ynmoifMum;cJhonf/ oufawmf(21)ESpfwGif ]]oD&dy0&wdavmur[m&mZdE´m&wema'0D}}bGJUcsDaom rdzk&m;acgifBuD;\ ypö,mEk*¾[ jzifh&[ef;tjzpfokdY a&muf&SdcJhonf/

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þuJhokdY tm&nuif"kwif? ½ku©rl"kwif? taAÇmumodu"kwif? okomef"kwif? [email protected]"kwifpaom"kwifwkdYukd aqmufwnf usifhokH;awmfrlaom xGwfacgifq&mawmf bk&m;BuD;onf oufawmf(81)ESpf? 0gawmf(61)0gt&wGif 1242-ckESpf? yxr0gqkd vqef;(1)&ufaeYü b0ewfausmif;ajymif;a½GUpHaeawmfrlygonf/

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