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"r®'ge á oHC á ygwdarmuf á t"du&Porx
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t"du&Porx


t"du½kPf;av;yg;

jzpfay:vmaom t"du½kPf;rIcif;rsm;udk ajyNidrf;aprnfhenf; vrf;ckepfoG,fudk jrwfpGmbk&m; a[mMum;awmfrlonf -

odu©myk'f ygVd

OyÜEéKyÜEémeH t"du&PmeH orxm, 0lyorm, or®Kcg0dea,m 'gwaAÁm? owd0dea,m 'gwaAÁm? trlV0dea,m 'gwaAÁm? y#dnm, uma&wAÁH? a,bk,sodum? wóygyd,odum? wdP0w¬ m&aumwd/

edó,

OyÜEéKyÜEémeH? jzpfukefjzpfukefaom/ t"du&PmeH? t"du½kPf;wdkY\/ orxm,? Nidrf;apjcif;iSmvnf;aumif;/ 0lyorm,? txl;ojzifh Nidrf;apjcif;iSmvnf;aumif;/ or®Kcg0dea,m? rsufarSmufjzpfaom or®Kcg0denf;udk/ 'gwaAÁm? ay;tyf\/ owd0dea,m? owd0denf;udk/ 'gwaAÁm? ay;tyf\/ trlV0dea,m? trIV§0denf;udk/ 'gwaAÁm? ay;tyf\/ y#dnm,? 0efcHojzifh/ uma&wAÁH? jyKtyf\/ a,bk,sodum? "r®0g'D yk*¾dKvfrsm;&modkYvdkufí jyKjcif;udk/ wóygyd,odum? ,kwfrmaomoltm; jyKtyfaom Úwådpwkw¬ uHudk/ umwAÁm? jyKtyf\/ wdP0w¬ m&aum? rpifudk jrufjzifh zHk;vTrf;ouJhodkY jyKtyfaomorxudk/ umwaAÁm? jyKtyf\/ £wd? þodkY ½Gwfqdktyf\/

t"dyÜg,f

t"du½kPf;qdkonfrSm ygVdbmom ]]t"du&P}} yk'fudk jrefrmrI jyKxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ ]]wnf&m}}[k t"dyÜg,f&\/ orx[kac:aom ajyNidrf;rIwdkY\ wnf&mjzpfonf/ t&yfoHk;pum;taejzifh vltkyfESifh½kef;&if;qefcwfjzpfonfudk t"du½kPf;[k qdkMuaomfvnf; 0ddenf;w&m;awmfÜ vmaom t"du½kPf;\t"dyÜg,frSm ]]ajyNidrf;rIwdkY\wnf&m? ajyNidrf;rIrsm; jyKvkyfay;&rnfh t&mXme}}[k qdkvdkonf/

t"du½kPf;av;yg;

  1. 0d0g'g"du½kPf;?
  2. tEk0g'g"du½kPf;?
  3. tmywåm"du½kPf;?
  4. udpöm"du½kPf;?

0d0g'g"du½kPf;

wpfpHkwpfckaom w&m;udk "r® t"r®? 0de, t0de,? w&m;awmfESifhnDrnD? 0denf;awmfESifhnDrnD wpfzufESifh wpfzuf jiif;cHkrI jyóemjzpf aejcif;udk ]]0d0g'g"du½kPf;}}[k ac:\/

tEk0g'g"du½kPf; yg&mZdu tmywfESifh oHCm'dodof tmywfoifhjcif;udk oDv0dywåd (oDvysufrI) [k ac:\/ xkv ’ pOf; ygpdwfpaom atmuftmywfig;yHkoifhjcif;udk ]]tmpm&0dywåd}} (tusifhysufrI)[k ac:\/ ukv'loe rdpämZD0 (vmbfudkiJhí vlwdkYtm; opfoD;ay;jcif;? yef;ay;jcif;) wdkYjzifh toufarG;rIrsm;udk ]]tmZD00dywåd}}[k ac:\/ t&d|&[ef;uJhodkY t,lazgufjyefrIudk ]]'d|d0dywåd}}[k ac:\/ xdk0dywåd wpfrsdK;rsdK;jzifh pGyfpGJ (apm'em) rIudk ]]tEk0g'g"du½kPf}}[k acg\/tmywåm"du½kPf;

a'GrmwdumÜ wdkuf½dkufvmaom tmywf ig;yHk? rmwdumudk tus,fa[mjyaom y'bmZeDac: 0dbif;ygVdawmfÜ vmaom xkv ’ pOf;ESifh 'kAÇmoDtmywfESpfyHk/ þtmywfckepfyHkwGif wpfyHkyHkodkY oifha&mufaejcif;udk ]]tmywåm"d½kPf;}}[k ac:\/ « tmywfoifhonfjzpfap? roifhonfjzpfap &[ef;wpfyg;tay:tmywfjzifh pGyfpGJjcif;udk ]]tmywåm"du½kPf;}}[k ac:\/»

udpöm"du½kPf;

oHCmhtpnf;ta0;jyKvkyfí tyavmue uH? Úwåd uH? Úwåd'kwd,uH? Úwådpwkw¬ uHtm;jzifh uHav;yg;wGif wpfyg;yg;jyKvkyfjcif;udk ]]udpöm"du½kPf;}}[k ac:\/

orxckepfyg;

tqdkygt"du½kPf;av;rsdK;udk ajyNidrf;atmifjyKvkyfonfhvrf; ckepfoG,fudk ]]orxckepfyg;}}[k ac:onf/ ,if; orxckepfyg;udk tpOf twdkif;az:jyygrnf/

  1. or®Kcg0de,orx?
  2. owd0de,orx?
  3. trlV§0de,orx?
  4. y#dnmwu&Porx?
  5. a,bk,sodumorx?
  6. wóygyd,oduorx?
  7. wdP0w¬ m&uorx?

or®Kcg0de,orx (rsufarSmufajyNidrf;jcif;)

"r® t"r®? 0de, t0de, tjiif;yGm;rI 0d0g'g"du½kPf; jzpfaevQif xdkt"du½kPf;Nidrf;ap&ef oHCmpnf;a0;í ESpfbuf yk*¾dKvfrsm; rsufarSmufwGif 0denf;w&m;awmfESifhtnDqHk;jzwfí ajyNidrf;apaom enf;udk ]]or®Kcg0de,orx}}[k ac:\/ þorxonf t"du½kPf;av;yg;vHk; Nidrf;apEdkif\/

or®Kc=rsufarSmuf [l&mÜ oHC? "r®? 0de,? yk*¾dKvf [k or®Kc av;yg;&Sd\/ oHCm\ rsufarSmufÜ jyKvkyfonf oHCor®Kcwm rnf\/ w&m;rQw rSefuefpGm jyKvkyfjcif;onf "r®or®Kcwm rnf\/ 0denf;vrf;aMumif;twdkif; ajyNidrf;apjcif;onf 0de,or®Kcwm rnf\/ apm'u pk'dwu ESpfbuf yk*¾dKvfwdkY\a&SUÜ ajyNidrf;apjcif;onf yk*¾vor®Kcwm rnf\/

owd0de,orx

&[EÅm yk*¾dKvfonf owdw&m; rsm;jym;jyefYajymvsuf&Sd\/ &[EÅm yk*¾dKvftm; owdjyefYajymoltjzpf oHCmhtpnf;ta0;u owfrSwfay;jcif;onf ]]owd0de,}} rnf\/ wpfpHkwpfa,mufaom yk*¾dKvfu &[EÅm yk*¾dKvftm; oDv0dywådjzifh pGyfpGJvmvQif pdppfNyD;aemuf tjypfr&SdaMumif; xif&Sm;ojzifh aemiftcg pGyfpGJrIrjyKEdkif&eftwGuf Úwådpwkw¬ ur®0gpmjzifh þowd0de, orx udk oHCmuay;&\/ xdkodkYoHCmuay;NyD;aemuf pGyfpGJaomfvnf; txrajrmufawmhacs/ ]]owd0de,orx}}onf pGyfpGJrI tEk0g'g"du½kPf;wpfrsdK;udk ajyNidrf;apEdkif\/

trlV§0de,orx

&[ef;wpfyg;onf awGa0½l;oG,f (rlV§) jzpfae\/ xdk&[ef; ½l;oGyfaecdkuf0,f tjypfrsm;usL;vGefaeonfudk tjcm;&[ef;wdkY jrifojzifh tmywfjzifhpGyfpGJMu&m &[ef;½l;u ]]pdwfazgufjyef aeojzifh rnfonft&mudkjyKrdrSef;rodaMumif;}} avQmufxm;aomfvnf; pGyfpGJae\/ xdk&[ef;twGuf xdkpGyfpGJrIrsm; Nidrf;apzdkY&m r½l;onfhtcg0,f Úwådpwkw¬ ur®0gpmjzifh trIV§0de,udk ay;&\/ ,if;odkYay;NyD;aemuf pdwfazgufjyefcsdefÜ jyKrdorQ udpöudk pGyfpGJcGifhr&Sdawmhacs/ þodkYvQif trlV§0de,onf tEk0g'g"du½kPf; wpfrsdK;udkajyNidrf; apEdkif\/

y#dnmwu&Porx

&[ef;wpfyg; tmywfoifhvQif tmywåm"du½kPf;jzpf\/ xdktmywåm"du½kPf;Nidrf;zdkY&m tjcm;oHCm? *dkPf;? yk*¾dKvf wpfrsdK;rsdK;xH ]]t[H baEÅ £w¬ EémrH tmywåð tmyaEém = wynfhawmfonf þrnfaom tmywfodkY a&mufcJhygNyD}}[k a'oemajym&\/ a'oemtajymcH&oluvnf; ]]yóod wH tmywåð = xdktmywfudk tjypf[k oif½I &JUvm;}}[k jyefar;&\/ xdkaemuf a'oemajymolu ]]tmr yómrd = rSefyg? tjypf[k ½Ijrifyg\}}[k y#dnmOfay;vQif a'oemtajymcH&olu olYy#dnmOf0efcHcsuftwdkif; ]]tm,wð oH0a&,smod = aemiftcg apmifhpnf;yg}}[k ajymqdk&\/ tmywfoifholu aemiftcgapmifhpnf;ygrnf[k 0efcHcsufy#dnmOf jyKvkyfonfhtcg tmywfoifhrI tmywåm"du½kPf; Nidrf;aomaMumifh ]]y#dnmwu&Porx}}rnf\/

a,bk,sodumorx

tjiif;yGm;rI 0d0g'g"du½kPf;jzpfí oHCmuGJjym;aeonfhtcg jyqkdcJhNyD;aom or®Kcg0de,orxjzifh ajyNidrf;atmif rjyKvkyfEdkifvQif oHCmpnf;a0;í qE´rJcGJ&onf/ rsm;onfhbufudk tEdkifay; qHk;jzwf&onf/ oHCmuwm0efay;aom&[ef;wpfyg;u &[ef;y&dowfÜ "r®0g'DrJqE´? t"r®0g'DrJqE´udk &,l&onf/ xdkodkY &,laponfhtcg "r®0g'DrJqE´ursm;aevQif rsm;&modkYvdkufí xdk"r®0g'D yk*¾dKvfwdkY\ t,l0g'twdkif; twnfjyKqHk;jzwf&\/ tu,fí t"r®0g'Dbufu rJqE´rsm;yHkay:aevQif &ufa½TUqdkif;í "r®0g'Dbufom; rsm;vmap&ef pkaqmif;NyD;rS "r®0g'D yk*¾dKvfwdkYtqdkjyKonfhtwdkif; twnfjyKqHk;jzwf&rnf/ qdkvdkonfrSm rnfonfhenfESifhrqdk "r®0g'Dbufu Edkifatmif aqmif½Guf&rnf/

þodkYvQif t"du½kPf;udk Nidrf;ap&mÜ trsm;pk\ tvdkqE´twdkif; jyKvkyfjcif;udk ]]a,bk,sodumorx}}[k ac:\/

wóygyd,oduorx

&[ef;wpfyg;udk yg&mZdutmywfjzifhjzpfap? xkv ’ pOf;paom tmywfjzifhjzpfap pGyfpGJapm'em&mÜ tqHk;tjzwfrcHvdkYí tjcm;pum;rsm;jzifh vSD;vTJajymqdkaecJhaomf xdk&[ef;tm; ]]wó ygyd,odu}}uH udk jyKvkyf&\/ xdkwóygyd,odu uH jyKcH&aom &[ef;onf tu,fí yg&mZdurusao;vQif qdkif&musifh0wfudk aumif;pGmusifhí aemufxyf oHCmhtxHÜ 0efcsawmif;yefNyD; xdkwóygyd,oduuHudk Nidrf;ap&\/ yg&mZduusvQifvnf; aemufxyftqHk;tjzwfcH&efrvdk xdkwóygyd,oduuHjzifhyif xdk&[ef;udk ESdyfeif;NyD;jzpfí vl0wfvJ ½Hkom&Sdawmh\/ þodkYvQif wóygyd,oduuHudk jyKvdkuf ygu pGyfpGJ&ef rvdkawmhojzifh apm'emjcif;[laom tEk0g'g"du½kPf;udk Nidrf;ap\/

wdP0w¬ m&uorx

oHCmESpfbufuGJí tjiif;yGm;rI 0d0g'g"du½kPf;jzpfae&mESpfbufvHk; tmywfoifhvsuf&SdaeMu\/ xdkYaemuf tmywfoifhrIudk &SufpEdk;jzpfvmMuonf/ xdktmywfrsm;udk ukpm;vdkMuaomtcg wpfbuf\tjypfudk wpfbufu az:jyaevQif tvGefrcHEdkifp&m jzpfaomaMumifh qGav eHavjzpfaom usifMuD;yHkudk jrufjzifh zHk;tkyf vdkuf&ouJhodkY ]]wdP0w¬ m&u}} uHudkjyK&\/ xdkuHjzifh wpfbufESifhwpfbuf tjypfrajympwrf;jyKí tmywfrsm;udk zHk;vdkuf&onf/ xdkwdP0w¬ m&uuHaMumifh tvGefMuD;av;aom yg&mZdu? oHCm'dodoftmywfESifh *d[dy#doH,kwå (vlESifhpyfaom) tjypf tmywfrsm;rSwpfyg; tjcm;tmywftm;vHk;yif ajyaysmufawmh\/ þodkYvQif wdP0w¬ m&uuHonf uGJjym;aeaomoHCm ESpfbufvHk; oifha&mufaeaomtmywf (tmywåm"du½kPf;)udk Nidrf;apEdkifonf/

t"du½kPf;av;yg;ESifh ,if;wdkYudkNidrf;apEdkifonfh orxrsm;

0d0g'"du½kPf;udk or®Kcg0de,orx? a,bl,sodumorx ESpfyg;wdkYjzifh Nidrf;apEdkif\/ tEk0g'g"du½kPf;udk or®Kcg0de,? owd0de,? trlV§0de,? wóygyd,oduorx av;yg;wdkYjzifh Nidrf;apEdkif\/ tmywåm"du½kPf;udk or®Kcg0de,? y#dnmwu&P? wdP0w¬ m&u orxoHk;yg;wdkYjzifh Nidrf;apEdkif\/ udpöm"du½kPf;udk or®Kcg0de, wpfckwnf;jzifhom Nidrf;apEdkif\/

tmywfti,frsm;a'oemMum;íukpm;enf; MuD;av;aom tmywfrsm;jzpfMuonfh yg&mZdutmywfESifh oHCm'dodof tmywfrsm; pifMu,fatmif ukpm;enf;udk oufqdkif&m tcef;Ü jyqdkcJhNyD;? yg#da'oeDtmywf ukpm;enf;udkvnf; &Sif;vif;jyqdkNyD;jzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif tmywfti,fpm;jzpfMuonfh xkv ’ pOf;tmywf? ygpdwftmywf? 'kuú#ftmywf? 'kAÇmoDtmywf[laom þtmywfi,f av;rsdK; oifha&muf&mÜ ukpm;enf;udk rjyqdk&ao;acs? odkYjzpfí v[ku (ti,fpm;)jzpfaom þtmywfav;rsdK; a'oemMum;ukpm;yHkudk jyqdkygOD;rnf/


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pwdkif a&G;jcif;

þ0uf(bf)pdkufyHkpHudk BudKuf&m a&G;cs,f zwf½SLEdkdifygonf/



aESmufqHk; jyif;jcif;/ 2005ckESpf (6)v (29)&uf